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Objectives :. Identify the states that supported the Union, the states that seceded, and the states whose loyalties were divided. Describe the advantages each side had in the war. Compare the different strategies used by the North and the South.

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Objectives:

  • Identify the states that supported the Union, the states that seceded, and the states whose loyalties were divided.
  • Describe the advantages each side had in the war.
  • Compare the different strategies used by the North and the South.
  • Summarize the results of the First Battle of Bull Run.
  • Describe the conditions soldiers in camp faced.
slide2

Terms and People:

  • border state – a slave state that did not secede
  • neutral – not favoring either side
  • martial law – a type of rule in which the military is in charge and citizens’ rights are suspended
  • blockade – a military action to prevent traffic from coming into an area or leaving it
slide3

Chapter 15 Section 1:

The Call to Arms

Learning Target: I can describe the advantages both sides had during the Civil War.

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Warm Up Questions:

List one advantage the South had.

List one advantage the North had.

What is the North’s strategy?

What is the South’s strategy?

How does the Union plan to cut the South off from foreign trade?

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Why did both the North and the South think they would easily win the war?

Many Northerners and Southerners were confident that their side would win a quick victory.

The North had a greater populationand more resources.

The South had a more experienced military.

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Creation of West Virginia

After the attack on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln asked states to send troops to end what he called a “rebellion.”

This caused more southern states to secede.

The western counties of Virginia refused to secede. These joined the Union as the state of West Virginia.

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The Border States

A key question at the start of the war was whether border states would side with the Union or the Confederacy.

Both sides wanted to control the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

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Northern Advantages

The North was confident that it would win the war by taking advantage of its resources. These included:

a larger population

more acres of farmland

more factories

more railroad tracks

The North was able to field, feed, and equip larger armies.

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Southern Advantages

On the other hand, the South had the advantage of land. The North would have to invade land with which they were not familiar.

Also, three generals, including Robert E. Lee, had resigned from the U.S. Army to help the South.

Robert E. Lee

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The North’s Strategy

The North planned a multi-part strategy to defeat the South.

  • Blockade southern ports.
  • Seize Richmond.
  • Gain control of the Mississippi River and split the South in two.
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The Southern Strategy

The South had a simpler strategy.

They only needed to defend their landuntil the Northern armies got tired of fighting.

They also sought help from Britain and other European nationsthat relied on the South for cotton.

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When the Civil War began, thousands of soldiers volunteered for the Union and Confederate armies.

Many of these soldiers were young and inexperienced.

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Conditions for Soldiers

Life in an army camp was harsh. Soldiers faced boredom, disease, and even death.

Outbreaks of diseases swept through the ranks.

Camps were filthy and lacked clean water.

Captured soldiers were placed in overcrowded prison camps.

Thousands diedfrom starvation or exposure.

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First Battle of Bull Run

However, in the north, newspapers called for a quick end to the war.

Because many soldiers were unskilled, Union General Irvin McDowell wanted time to train his men.

Union soldiers marched towards Richmond.

During the First Battle of Bull Run,Confederate general “Stonewall” Jackson and his men held firm.

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Inexperienced Union soldiers panicked and then retreated, but the Confederates were too exhausted to pursue them.

Bull Run was an early sign that the war would be long and costly.

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Closing Questions:

Answer each question by yourself in 2-3 COMPLETE sentences.

Knowing the advantages of each side who do you think had a better chance of winning the war? Explain.

What would have happened if the North would not have been able to cut off the South from foreign trade? How would this have affected the outcome of the war?

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Closing Questions: Honors

Answer each question by yourself in 3-4 COMPLETE sentences.

Knowing the advantages of each side who do you think had a better chance of winning the war? Explain.

What would have happened if the North would not have been able to cut off the South from foreign trade? How would this have affected the outcome of the war?

slide29

Section Review

QuickTake Quiz

Know It, Show It Quiz

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