The United States as a World Leader Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, from Crisis to Prosperity

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. After WWII, the Soviet Union and the United States entered into a power struggle that would last for almost 40 yearsThis Cold" War (called this because no actual war took place) pitted the West (US and allies) against the East (Soviet Union and allies). Origins of the Cold War. Western democrac

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The United States as a World Leader Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, from Crisis to Prosperity

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1. The United States as a World Leader (Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, from Crisis to Prosperity)

2. After WWII, the Soviet Union and the United States entered into a power struggle that would last for almost 40 years This “Cold” War (called this because no actual war took place) pitted the West (US and allies) against the East (Soviet Union and allies)

3. Origins of the Cold War Western democracy’s fundamental hatred of communism and growing distrust of Stalin’s regime in the Soviet Union Stalin’s broken promise of allowing free elections in Eastern European nations after WWII threatened western democratic values, due to a fear of the spread of communism Containment: idea of keeping Soviet influences contained within existing boundaries The “Iron Curtain”: Churchill’s explanation of cut off Soviet-run Eastern Europe from the democratic governments of the West

4. US Response Truman Doctrine: By giving $400 million in economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey to fight off communist threats, the US took a firm role in containing communism at any cost. The encouragement of nations to resist communism became known as the Truman Doctrine. Marshall Plan: Secretary of State George Marshall toured European nations and saw the damage caused by WWII. Fearing that communism could easily infiltrate these war-torn countries, Marshall proposed a plan to aide and rebuild these nations. This $12 billion dollar plan reduced the threat of communist revolutions is Europe.

5. Berlin Crisis After Yalta and the decision to divide control in Germany between the US, France, Britain and the Soviet Union, Stalin feared the idea of the US, France and Britain combing their “zones.” To prevent a united Western Germany, Stalin closed all roads, railway lines, and river routes connecting Berlin with West Germany. This blockade cut West Germany off from the rest of the world. Berlin Airlift: American and British planes delivered food, fuel and supplies to West Germany. Stalin saw the resistance of the west and lifted the blockade in May, 1949.

6. Berlin wall Communist East Germans fled to the West for many years. Stalin decided to build a huge concrete wall topped with barbed wire to seal East Berlin from West Berlin. The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the Cold War for the duration.

7. North Atlantic Treaty Organization: alliances with friendly nations created in 1949, NATO was formed to defend Western Europe against any Soviet threat. United Nations: 1945- formed after WWII to promote peace and settle disputes

8. Warsaw Pact Military Alliance formed by Soviet Union in response to NATO Alliance included other Communist nations in Eastern Europe to secure relations throughout the Cold War Era (1955)

9. China Even with new organizations and policies, communism continued to grow. Mao Zedong and his communist supporters gained power in China. Now, the fear of communism grew with the growing concern of Eastern Europe and Asia being dominated by communism

10. Korean Conflict (1950-1953) 38th Parallel: line that divided communist North Korea from non-communist South Korea US supports South Korea after North Korea invades and occupies Seoul (capital of South Korea) General MacArthur leads the attacks. North Korea was forced back across the 38th parallel. MacArthur suggests using nuclear weapons to end the war, Truman disagrees. Once China joined forces with the North, they took the upper hand pressing into the south. The war was a “deadlock”

11. Armistice The conflict in Korea continued, and both sides were eager for a cease-fire. 1953- Newly elected president Eisenhower visits Korea and with the help of an international commission, an armistice is drawn redrawing the line of division at the 38th parallel. Demilitarized Zone: an area with no military forces 54,000 Americans died in Korea, for a conflict which proved nothing different than when it started

12. Hunting Down Communism at Home Turning on free enterprise and democracy after the Great Depression, some Americans felt that communism was the answer to their economic difficulties Several arrests were made throughout the US, Canada and Britain. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were arrested for passing atomic secrets to the Russians. Both were executed (1953) Alger Hiss- State Department official accused of perjury, when he denied being part of a circle of Americans sharing information with the Soviets

13. The McCarthy Era Senator Joseph McCarthy (Wisconsin)- claimed to have a list of 205 State Department employees who were Communist part members. He never proved this, but received large amounts of national acclaim McCarthy continued to insist that their were communists in the US Army. He went too far and lost much popularity. McCarthy was condemned for “conduct unbecoming a member” of the Senate. He died three years later “McCarthyism” refers to making charges about a person’s loyalty without offering any evidence

14. Cold War conflicts continued in Africa and Asia. The US withdrew from the Philippines in 1946 after being in control since acquisition during the Spanish-American War. The Philippines struggled for many years to find stability in their government In Africa, the Soviet Union and the United States assisted nations torn after gaining independence after WWII. These struggles were often caused by the desire to make alliances for each nation. India- after gaining independence from Britain, the sub-continent was divided into Pakistan and India. Both superpowers tried to win the support of these nations

15. Crisis over Cuba Bay of Pigs Invasion- The Soviet Union supplied communist Cuba (led by Fidel Castro) with military supplies and economic aid. 1961- JFK approves an exile-led plan to overthrow Castro. Castro quickly took advantage of the ill-planned invasion and an embarrassed United States grew more and more hostile toward Cuba

16. Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets were secretly building missile bases in Cuba Because of the closeness of Cuba (90 miles south of Florida) JFK decided to send American ships to stop any Russian vessel carrying missiles. The world was tense as Soviet ships headed for Cuba, but then eventually turned back. Krushchev removed Soviet missiles and the US promised not to invade Cuba. This was the closest the world came to a full-scale nuclear war during the Cold War years

17. Aid Programs Alliance for Progress- US gives aid to Latin American nations to build schools, hospitals and improve farming and sanitation services Peace Corps- American volunteers worked in developing countries as teachers, engineers and technical advisors OAS- Organization of American States- US promoted progress in the Americas by investing in transportation and industry

18. The Arms Race Sputnik- Soviets launched the first satellite into space. The US was stunned. Fear followed, with the belief that if the Soviets could launch a satellite into space, they certainly could send a rocket with atomic weapons to the United States US responds with NASA- National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The mission was to build a space program that would compete with the Russians.

19. Vietnam Ho Chi Minh- a communist and Vietnamese nationalist led his nation to victory over France A peace conference divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. The North was led by Minh and the South by Diem. The Soviet Union supported the north, the US supported the South.

20. Domino Theory- the idea that if South Vietnam fell to communists, then other countries in the region would fall as well, like a row of dominoes. This justified Johnson’s decision to send troops to Southeast Asia Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- announcement that North Vietnamese ships had attacked an American patrol ship. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, allowing the President to take whatever means necessary to prevent further aggression By 1968, 500,000 American troops were in Vietnam

21. Protest at Home Vietnam sparked great amounts of debate within the US The conflict in Vietnam forced many young men to flee or “dodge” the draft (forced military enlistment) Many Americans, largely college students and twenty-somethings, protested the war, stating the US had no business being involved in the affairs of the Vietnamese

22. Tet Offensive Tet- the Vietnamese New Year. Numerous attacks on American and South Vietnamese troops surprised and killed many. Major victory for the Vietcong (Minh’s North Vietnamese troops) This proved that no matter how many troops the US had in Vietnam, the conflict was never going to end and no one would ever win 1968- Nixon is elected and began withdrawing troops, but not quickly. By 1973- cease fire

23. Vietnamese used guerilla tactics in order to fight. These “hit and run” tactics were used to attack the enemy in smaller amounts, rather than large plannede out battles GUERILLA WARFARE

24. Kennedy’s Vietnam Supported the “domino theory” He sent military advisors to South Vietnam to help defend the nation, hoping to promote democracy

25. Johnson’s Vietnam 1964- Johnson gives authority to halt North Vietnamese aggression. (Turning Point) Large numbers of troops are sent Johnson only proves that America was far from winning the war

26. Nixon’s Vietnam 1968- campaigns for presidency, promises “peace with honor” 5 years later, troops are gradually withdrawn 1973- Paris Peace Accords: America withdrew from South Vietnam. Two years later, the Communists took over South Vietnam, leaving conditions as they were in the late 1950’s.

27. Outcomes 1975- communist forces capture Saigon, and re-name it Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam became united under a communist government Nearby Cambodia was in the midst of a civil war Communist Khmer Rouge imposed a brutal reign of terror on their own people 1979- Vietnam invaded Cambodia and set up a communist state. Fighting continued for years

28. End of the Cold War Chinese tensions with the United States began to diminish with President Nixon’s visit to China and the Chinese invitation of the American Ping Pong team to Bejing To reduce tensions between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the US, President Nixon made a visit to the Soviet Union. This policy is known as détente. SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- More trade and contact between the US and Russia was established as well as a limitation to the amount of nuclear warheads and missiles allowed

29. Star Wars- Reagan’s development of a new weapons system that he hoped could destroy Soviet Missiles from space 1985- Mikhail Gorbachev backed glasnost, the Russian term for speaking out openly. He hoped this would lead to citizens discovering ideas to solve economic and social problems Instead, it leads to the collapse of the Soviet Union

30. The Demise of Communism The late-1980’s proved that the majority of the world wanted democracy to prosper The Soviet Union no longer had the power to suppress these protests 1989- Poland rejected communism in their elections and one-by-one other communist nations fell as well. East Germany- 1990- Berliners smashed through the wall that divided their city. Germany became democratic. This was a symbolic representation of the crumbling communist nation

31. The Soviet Union Falls 1990- Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia demanded self-rule. This was followed by the emergence of political parties in the Soviet Union and the demand for self-rule by the other 12 states within the Soviet Union 15 new states emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union Boris Yeltsin became president of Russia, the largest of the new nations

32. At Home Production and Consumption patterns result in economic expansion US, as a world leader, becomes the largest producer of goods and services after WWII Industry evolves Large boost of children born in the late 1940’s and 1950’s becomes known as BABY BOOM

33. Baby Boom adds the need for additional housing, education and related services. Women enter the workforce to meet these needs More Americans gain employment in fields such as health care, education and banking Poverty still exists- mainly in rural areas and within minority groups

34. Civil Rights Movement Focus on greater rights of humans and goals are equality and democracy Major Case: Brown v. Board of Education (NAACP, 1953, argues for the right of an African-American to attend an all-white public school) Supreme Court rules that segregation in public schools is UNCONSTITUTIONAL. This reverses the 1896 legislation stating “Separate but equal is constitutional” ***Brown v. Board leads to end of racial segregation in public schools***

35. Martin Luther King, Jr. Leader of the Civil Rights Movement Mid 1950’s Attempts to change the attitudes of racists through non-violent protest (like Gandhi) Civil Disobedience: nonviolent protest against unjust laws

36. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955- One of the most successful campaigns against racism Ends racial segregation on pubic buses in Montgomery, Alabama Boycotts, Picketing and Sit-ins were methods of civil disobedience Often times, MLK, Jr. faced violence from opposition

37. “I Have a Dream” MLK, Jr. organizes a March on Washington where at the Lincoln Memorial, he gives his world-famous speech The speech focuses on the nation’s attention on the problems faced by African Americans who are deprived of their human rights

38. Civil Rights Act 1964- Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits discrimination based on race or religion in business involved in interstate commerce Voting Rights Act: 1965- prohibits practices that were still in use, mainly in southern states, that prevented African Americans from voting

39. Who else joined the crusade? Women, Native American Indians, the disabled and others also fought for equality The Supreme Court and Earl Warren pushed to protect individual rights (Miranda v. Arizona, 1966) Police cannot interrogate a person accused of a crime without first telling the person of his or her right to have a lawyer present or to remain silent

40. Domestic Policies John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson attempted to reform society, as well Civil Rights Legislation, improvements in education and reduction of poverty were all hot topics in the “Great Society” Medicare, inner city assistance, affirmative action (programs promoting the hiring of blacks and women)

41. Women’s Liberation 1960’s- women wanted equal pay for equal work Influenced by the CRM Women’s Lib become a campaign for women and made advancements in the workplace and in society Impacts: Education (hiring female professors) Employment (building of child-care centers) Research Ms. (instead of Miss or Mrs.)

42. Crisis Assassinations: John F. Kennedy (1963) Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1968) [ Robert F. Kennedy (1969)

43. Violence Some African Americans become violent after the death of MLK, Jr. Riots erupted in cities, and other minority groups began to mirror the image of angry African Americans American Indian Movement: Alcatraz Island gets seized and the monument at Wounded Knee Tensions further escalate in Vietnam, causing mass protest and demonstrations, mainly at college campuses across the nation (1969)

44. Nixon’s Crises War Powers Act: requires the president to seek Congressional approval soon after sending troops overseas (1973) nation loses faith in their national leaders Watergate: 1972- A group working for Nixon breaks into the Democratic National Headquarters at the Watergate building

45. Nixon’s Demise Nixon secretly taped White House conversations and he refused to turn over tapes that could possibly incriminate him SC orders him to turn over the tapes, supporting the fact that the president is NOT above the law Nixon’s cover is blown, he’s caught lying Threatened with impeachment, Nixon resigns

46. Economics Inflation: rising prices, (dealt with during Nixon’s presidency) Stagflation: severe inflation and high unemployment in the early 1970’s Ford and Carter deal with this, without much success Carter faces troubles in Iran (1978) Overthrow of the Shah by Muslims, Iranians seize the US Embassy, holding 50 staff members hostage for more than a year Seeming helpless, Carter loses the election in 1980

47. Reagan Cut federal programs Eliminated many regulations on business Cut federal taxes Increased military spending, by increasing the federal deficit: what the government pays for by borrowing Spurs the economy, however the national debt was greatly increased

48. Iran-Contra Scandal Rolling back Communism was a major goal of Reagan’s administration Sending aid to rebel nations was common for Reagan (Afghanistan) Congress forbid Reagan from sending aid to Nicaraguan anti-communist rebels High officials secretly used funds to aid the rebels Reagan is cleared of any wrong doing

49. New Role in World Affairs 1977- Panama Canal Treaty- granting Panama the rights to the canal in 1999. (Carter) 1977- Camp David Accords- invited leaders of Israel and Egypt to Camp David, Maryland, which led to a peace settlement (Carter) 1989- George Bush calls for “New World Order” to protect world oil supplies: Persian Gulf War Bush also sent supplies to Somalia to help protect emergency food supplies from conflicts by local warlords

50. Clinton and Bush World Peacekeeper Intervened in Bosnia and Kosovo, which were battlegrounds for racial and ethnic groups Supported NAFTA Promotion of peace in the Middle East Bush- war on Terrorism Afghanistan Iraq Promotion of democratic forms of government

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