Economic Fluctuation and the Business Cycle. The business cycle is up-and-down movement in production and jobs. A business cycle has two phases, expansion and recession, and two turning point, a peak and a trough.
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The business cycle is up-and-down movement in production and jobs.
A business cycle has two phases, expansion and recession, and two turning point, a peak and a trough.
A Recession is a decrease in real GDP that lasts for at least two quarters (six months) or a period of significant decline in total output, income, employment.
Ques: When is unemployment above/below it’s natural rate? At what point is unemployment at its lowest?
Recall- We covered models determining real output, the market for loanable funds, and the money market.
(can someone comment on some major aspects of these models?)
We need a model to analyze economic fluctuation.
The AS-AD model is one that helps explain economic fluctuation, the business cycle, and the aim of government policy.
AS-AD prices and money supply does affect real GDP.
Aggregate supply is the relationship between the quantity of real GDP supplied and the price level when all other influences on production plans remain the same.
-a change in the price level changes the quantity of real GDP supplied.
n.B There is a 1) short run AS curve that slopes upward.
Shifters- Changes in firm’s cost of production
(i.e wages , rent , interest rates, corporate tax rates).
2) Long run AS curve, that identifies the level of potential GDP. ( the idea is the output will always return to its long run potential.
Shifters- Factors that change potential GDP. (recall)
n.b- A shift of the long run AS curve also shifts the short run curve.
Aggregate demand is the relationship between the quantity of real GDP demanded and the price level when all other influences on expenditure plans remain the same.
A change in price impacts the quantity of AD via three effects.
Can you think how they work.
Recall- Y= C+I+G+(N-X)
Government can use fiscal policy to influence aggregate demand.
Fiscal policy is changing taxes, transfer payments, and government expenditure on goods and services.
The Federal Reserve can use monetary policy to influence aggregate demand.
Monetary policy is changing the quantity of money and the interest rate.
Three possible macroeconomic equilibriums are
1.Below full-employment equilibrium, when potential GDP exceeds equilibrium real GDP.
2.Full-employment equilibrium, when equilibrium real GDP equal potential GDP.
3.Above full-employment equilibrium, when equilibrium real GDP exceeds potential GDP.
4 step analysis.
Example. New technology is created increasing the profitability of firms. Analyse the possible economic fluctuation that may occur.
Ex. 2 Analyze the short run and long run impact of a global rise in oil prices.
What we see occur is called stagflation/stagnation.
Stagflation is a combination of recession (falling real GDP) and inflation (rising price level).
Inflationary gap is a gap that exists when real GDP exceeds potential GDP and that brings a rising price level.
Recessionary gap is a gap that exists when potential GDP exceeds real GDP and that brings a falling price level.
Real GDP exceeds potential GDP — there is an inflationary gap —and the price level rises.
As the money wage rate gradually rises, aggregate supply decreases, real GDP decreases, and the price level rises farther.
Potential GDP exceeds real GDP—recessionary gap— and the price level falls.
Eventually, the money wage rate starts to fall, aggregate supply increases, real GDP increases, and the price level falls farther.
2) Use the AS-AD model to identify a
3)Use the AS-Ad model to analyze the business cycle created by the wall street crisis.
Analyze the policy tools used to shorten the recessionary period.