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Biometric standards An overview of biometrics and identity management. Supervisor : Ahmed Abu Mosameh Prepared by : Mahmoud Alasi 220060035. The need to identify. Every day we are required to identify ourselves Using a bank card with a PIN at a cash machine

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biometric standards an overview of biometrics and identity management
Biometric standardsAn overview of biometrics and identity management

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

Supervisor : Ahmed Abu Mosameh

Prepared by : Mahmoud Alasi

220060035

the need to identify
The need to identify
  • Every day we are required to identify ourselves
    • Using a bank card with a PIN at a cash machine
    • A password to log on to a computer
    • Using a key to open a door
    • Punching a code into a keypad to enter the workplace
    • Using passwords on the Internet
    • Providing a passport and driving licence as proof of identity
  • We need to be able to accurately IDENTIFY an individual to minimize current issues and threats

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

current attributes used to identify
Current attributes used to identify
  • Name
  • Address
  • Postcode
  • Date of Birth
  • Account no.
  • Passwords
  • PINs
  • Phone no.
  • Mother’s maiden name
  • Passport
  • Birth certificate
  • Driving licence
  • Credit cards
  • Utility bills
  • Membership cards
  • Salary slip

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

is biometrics the answer
Is biometrics the answer?
  • A biometric is part of the person and is not easily compromised through:
    • Theft
    • Collusion
    • Loss
  • Simplifies user management resulting in cost savings
  • Users do not need to remember passwords
  • Users do not need to remember PINs
  • User accounts cannot be shared
  • Easy to use

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

biometric definition
Biometric definition
  • The automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics
    • The general meaning of biometrics encompasses counting, measuring and statistical analysis of any kind of data in the biological sciences including the relevant medical sciences
  • The term is derived from the Greek words “bios” meaning life and “metron” meaning measure

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

biological and behavioural
Biological and behavioural
  • Behavioural
    • Signature
    • Gait
    • Voice
    • Keystroke dynamics
  • Biological
    • Fingerprint
    • Face (2D & 3D)
    • Iris
    • Vein pattern
    • Hand geometry
    • DNA

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

slide7
Iris
  • Captures the pattern of flecks on the iris
  • Uses conventional cameras
  • Average 2 seconds for identification
  • No physical contact between user and reader

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

slide8
Face
  • Based upon the geometric shape and position of features of the face
  • Resistant to changes in skin tone, facial hair, hair style, and eyeglasses
  • No active user involvement required in order to perform identification/verification
  • Limited success in practical applications

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

voice
Voice
  • Analyses voice patterns and characteristics of speech e.g. pitch, tone, etc.
  • High user acceptance – perceived as least intrusive biometric technology
  • Easy for end users to implement
  • Ideal for telephone systems/mobile environments

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

hand geometry
Hand geometry
  • Measures the physical characteristics of the user’s hand and fingers
  • Low level infrared light and camera used to capture an image
  • Suited to applications where there is a large user base or users access the system infrequently
  • Systems are easy to use and robust

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

signature
Signature
  • Based on analysis of the dynamics of a handwritten signature e.g. shape, speed, stroke order, pen pressure
  • Generally use pressure sensitive tablets or wired pens
  • User friendly
  • Non intrusive – minimal public acceptance issues
  • Captured signature can be used for digitally signing documents

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

keystroke dynamics
Keystroke dynamics
  • Monitors rate of typing and intervals between letters
  • Verification based on typing rhythm – intruders may guess password but fail to key in with correct rhythm
  • Neither enrolment nor verification disturbs the regular flow of work
  • Low cost – only hardware required is keyboard

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

fingerprint
Fingerprint
  • Variety of fingerprint devices available (silicon and optical)
  • Template constructed by analysing patterns that make the fingerprint (minutiae)

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

slide14
DNA
  • Forensic genetics use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in a number of important human identity applications
  • 0.01% of a person\'s entire genome is unique to each individual
    • This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA
    • 95% of the human genome are non-coding sequences (called junk DNA)
  • Standard profiling systems only exploit the junk DNA to maintain the privacy and civil rights of the donor

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

multimodal
Multimodal
  • Combination of one or more biometrics
    • Algorithmic level
    • Results level
  • Multimodal is the fusion
  • of results with logic applied

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

key multimodal facts

Input

Device

Fusion

Input

Device

Matching

Fusion

Matching

Result

Fusion

Result

Key multimodal facts

Can be used to:

  • Improve reliability
  • Make forgery more difficult
  • Make systems more flexible to user characteristics
  • (decreases failure to enrol)
  • Make systems more complex
  • Promote inclusivity

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

verification versus identification
Verification versus Identification
  • “Are you who you say you are?”
  • “Who are you?”

NOT

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verification and identification
Verification and Identification
  • Verification
    • Involves confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity – Are you who you claim to be?
    • Biometric sample captured and compared with the previously stored template for that user
    • One-to-one comparison
    • Are you who you say you are?
    • “I am who I say I am”
  • Identification
    • Means establishing a person’s identity from an already established list – Who are you from this list?
    • Biometric sample presented to a system which searches the existing (enrolled) subjects
    • One-to-many comparison
    • Do I know you?
    • “I am not known to you already”

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

identification before verification
Identification before verification
  • To establish a ‘clean’ database of individuals each individual first needs to be identified
    • One-to-many match is performed against the central database to ensure the individual does not already exist under correct name or any other aliases
  • Once identity is established it can be sufficient to verify the individual as proof of identity only
    • One-to-one match is performed at the point of interface without the need to check back to the central database

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

key consideration in a biometric system

Current & Future Technology

Risk & Requirement Analysis

Research & Development

User Perception

Accuracy & Throughput

Strategy

Business Process

Performance

Integration

Key Consideration in a biometric system

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

considerations of adding a biometric system
Considerations of adding a biometric system
  • Not all biometrics technologies suit all people
  • In many cases additional hardware is required
  • User co-operation is usually necessary
  • Privacy concerns must be addressed
  • Cost of personal devices in large systems can be significant
  • User education is required
  • Biometric revocation must be considered as biometric data is not secret

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

capture the legal and political imperatives
Capture the legal and political imperatives
  • Ask what additional considerations are there with a biometric application as opposed to any other IT deliverable
    • Privacy?
    • Data access considerations (who and why)?
    • Sensitivity of data?
    • Legislative limitations?
    • User acceptance?
    • Standards compliance?

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

iso iec jtc1 sc 37 biometrics
ISO/IEC JTC1 SC 37 Biometrics
  • Currently 25 participating countries and 7 observer countries
  • Liaisons with:
    • JTC 1/SC 17 Cards and Personal Identification.
    • JTC 1/SC 24 Computer Graphics and Imaging
    • JTC 1/SC 27 Information Technology Security Techniques.
    • JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of Audio, Picture and Multimedia and Hypermedia Information.
    • JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques
    • JTC 1/SC 32 Data Management and Interchange
    • JTC 1/SC 36 Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training.
    • ITU-T SG17 Telecommunication Standardization Sector Study Group on Data Networks and Telecommunications Software.
    • BioAPI Consortium
    • IBIA International Biometrics Industry Association (IBIA)
    • ILO International Labour Office of the UN

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

the benefits of standards for biometrics
The benefits of standards for biometrics
  • They foster wide spread utilization of the technology
  • They are a sign of industry maturity
  • They reduce time-to-market
  • They facilitate interchange and/or interoperability
  • They reduce risk to integrators and end users
  • They reduce vendor “lock-in” effect

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

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