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Biometric standards An overview of biometrics and identity management. Supervisor : Ahmed Abu Mosameh Prepared by : Mahmoud Alasi 220060035. The need to identify. Every day we are required to identify ourselves Using a bank card with a PIN at a cash machine

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Biometric standards an overview of biometrics and identity management

Biometric standardsAn overview of biometrics and identity management

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE

Supervisor : Ahmed Abu Mosameh

Prepared by : Mahmoud Alasi

220060035


The need to identify

The need to identify

  • Every day we are required to identify ourselves

    • Using a bank card with a PIN at a cash machine

    • A password to log on to a computer

    • Using a key to open a door

    • Punching a code into a keypad to enter the workplace

    • Using passwords on the Internet

    • Providing a passport and driving licence as proof of identity

  • We need to be able to accurately IDENTIFY an individual to minimize current issues and threats

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Current attributes used to identify

Current attributes used to identify

  • Name

  • Address

  • Postcode

  • Date of Birth

  • Account no.

  • Passwords

  • PINs

  • Phone no.

  • Mother’s maiden name

  • Passport

  • Birth certificate

  • Driving licence

  • Credit cards

  • Utility bills

  • Membership cards

  • Salary slip

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Is biometrics the answer

Is biometrics the answer?

  • A biometric is part of the person and is not easily compromised through:

    • Theft

    • Collusion

    • Loss

  • Simplifies user management resulting in cost savings

  • Users do not need to remember passwords

  • Users do not need to remember PINs

  • User accounts cannot be shared

  • Easy to use

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Biometric definition

Biometric definition

  • The automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics

    • The general meaning of biometrics encompasses counting, measuring and statistical analysis of any kind of data in the biological sciences including the relevant medical sciences

  • The term is derived from the Greek words “bios” meaning life and “metron” meaning measure

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Biological and behavioural

Biological and behavioural

  • Behavioural

    • Signature

    • Gait

    • Voice

    • Keystroke dynamics

  • Biological

    • Fingerprint

    • Face (2D & 3D)

    • Iris

    • Vein pattern

    • Hand geometry

    • DNA

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Biometric standards an overview of biometrics and identity management

Iris

  • Captures the pattern of flecks on the iris

  • Uses conventional cameras

  • Average 2 seconds for identification

  • No physical contact between user and reader

UNIVERSITY OF PALESTINE


Biometric standards an overview of biometrics and identity management

Face

  • Based upon the geometric shape and position of features of the face

  • Resistant to changes in skin tone, facial hair, hair style, and eyeglasses

  • No active user involvement required in order to perform identification/verification

  • Limited success in practical applications

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Voice

Voice

  • Analyses voice patterns and characteristics of speech e.g. pitch, tone, etc.

  • High user acceptance – perceived as least intrusive biometric technology

  • Easy for end users to implement

  • Ideal for telephone systems/mobile environments

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Hand geometry

Hand geometry

  • Measures the physical characteristics of the user’s hand and fingers

  • Low level infrared light and camera used to capture an image

  • Suited to applications where there is a large user base or users access the system infrequently

  • Systems are easy to use and robust

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Signature

Signature

  • Based on analysis of the dynamics of a handwritten signature e.g. shape, speed, stroke order, pen pressure

  • Generally use pressure sensitive tablets or wired pens

  • User friendly

  • Non intrusive – minimal public acceptance issues

  • Captured signature can be used for digitally signing documents

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Keystroke dynamics

Keystroke dynamics

  • Monitors rate of typing and intervals between letters

  • Verification based on typing rhythm – intruders may guess password but fail to key in with correct rhythm

  • Neither enrolment nor verification disturbs the regular flow of work

  • Low cost – only hardware required is keyboard

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Fingerprint

Fingerprint

  • Variety of fingerprint devices available (silicon and optical)

  • Template constructed by analysing patterns that make the fingerprint (minutiae)

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Biometric standards an overview of biometrics and identity management

DNA

  • Forensic genetics use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in a number of important human identity applications

  • 0.01% of a person's entire genome is unique to each individual

    • This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA

    • 95% of the human genome are non-coding sequences (called junk DNA)

  • Standard profiling systems only exploit the junk DNA to maintain the privacy and civil rights of the donor

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Multimodal

Multimodal

  • Combination of one or more biometrics

    • Algorithmic level

    • Results level

  • Multimodal is the fusion

  • of results with logic applied

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Key multimodal facts

Input

Device

Fusion

Input

Device

Matching

Fusion

Matching

Result

Fusion

Result

Key multimodal facts

Can be used to:

  • Improve reliability

  • Make forgery more difficult

  • Make systems more flexible to user characteristics

  • (decreases failure to enrol)

  • Make systems more complex

  • Promote inclusivity

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Verification versus identification

Verification versus Identification

  • “Are you who you say you are?”

  • “Who are you?”

NOT

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Verification and identification

Verification and Identification

  • Verification

    • Involves confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity – Are you who you claim to be?

    • Biometric sample captured and compared with the previously stored template for that user

    • One-to-one comparison

    • Are you who you say you are?

    • “I am who I say I am”

  • Identification

    • Means establishing a person’s identity from an already established list – Who are you from this list?

    • Biometric sample presented to a system which searches the existing (enrolled) subjects

    • One-to-many comparison

    • Do I know you?

    • “I am not known to you already”

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Identification before verification

Identification before verification

  • To establish a ‘clean’ database of individuals each individual first needs to be identified

    • One-to-many match is performed against the central database to ensure the individual does not already exist under correct name or any other aliases

  • Once identity is established it can be sufficient to verify the individual as proof of identity only

    • One-to-one match is performed at the point of interface without the need to check back to the central database

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Key consideration in a biometric system

Current & Future Technology

Risk & Requirement Analysis

Research & Development

User Perception

Accuracy & Throughput

Strategy

Business Process

Performance

Integration

Key Consideration in a biometric system

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Considerations of adding a biometric system

Considerations of adding a biometric system

  • Not all biometrics technologies suit all people

  • In many cases additional hardware is required

  • User co-operation is usually necessary

  • Privacy concerns must be addressed

  • Cost of personal devices in large systems can be significant

  • User education is required

  • Biometric revocation must be considered as biometric data is not secret

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Capture the legal and political imperatives

Capture the legal and political imperatives

  • Ask what additional considerations are there with a biometric application as opposed to any other IT deliverable

    • Privacy?

    • Data access considerations (who and why)?

    • Sensitivity of data?

    • Legislative limitations?

    • User acceptance?

    • Standards compliance?

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Iso iec jtc1 sc 37 biometrics

ISO/IEC JTC1 SC 37 Biometrics

  • Currently 25 participating countries and 7 observer countries

  • Liaisons with:

    • JTC 1/SC 17 Cards and Personal Identification.

    • JTC 1/SC 24 Computer Graphics and Imaging

    • JTC 1/SC 27 Information Technology Security Techniques.

    • JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of Audio, Picture and Multimedia and Hypermedia Information.

    • JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques

    • JTC 1/SC 32 Data Management and Interchange

    • JTC 1/SC 36 Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training.

    • ITU-T SG17 Telecommunication Standardization Sector Study Group on Data Networks and Telecommunications Software.

    • BioAPI Consortium

    • IBIA International Biometrics Industry Association (IBIA)

    • ILO International Labour Office of the UN

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The benefits of standards for biometrics

The benefits of standards for biometrics

  • They foster wide spread utilization of the technology

  • They are a sign of industry maturity

  • They reduce time-to-market

  • They facilitate interchange and/or interoperability

  • They reduce risk to integrators and end users

  • They reduce vendor “lock-in” effect

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