The Complexity of Damp Indoor Spaces. Jack D. Thrasher, Ph.D. Sandra Crawley, M.ED., LADC Michelle DeFazio, BSAT – NTEF #1. Introduction. Water Intrusion – fungi, bacteria and protozoa Multiple Biocontaminants Additive and Synergistic Effects Increased Health Risks #2.
Jack D. Thrasher, Ph.D.
Sandra Crawley, M.ED., LADC
Michelle DeFazio, BSAT – NTEF
It is apparent that additive and synergistic effects have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.
LPS AND MYCOTOXIN SYNERGISM
Toxicol Sci 98:525-41.
Water Activity (Aw) – Water Content
The ratio of vapor pressure exerted by water in the material to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same Temp. and Pressure
Bacteria- Gram (+) and (-)
Particulates: Large & Small (<2 micron)
Hemolysin & Siderophores
Two Groups of Particulates
Spores and Hyphae at 2 microns and up.
Fragments <2 microns.
Asthma was significantly associated with presence of hydrophilic and Ergosterol.
Ergosterol is a sterol found in fungal walls.
2. Mice: Lungs (m = 3,975 ng/g; Sera (M = 36.9 ng/ml)
Human Sera: 2 of 11 patients without confirmed I.A. In Confirmed I.A. patients 4 of 5 (range 166 to 785 ng/ml).
(aerobes and anaerobes)
Mycobacteria – Streptomyces sp,Nocardia sp., Mycobacterium sp.Bacteria Gram Negative and Positive – Examples – Gorny & Dukiewicz, 2002; Bouillard et al, 2004.
1. Inhaled LPS are associated with inflammation of the lungs involving TNF-alpha, and activation of C3.
2. There is complicated interaction between TLR4 receptors and CD14 polymorphism – CD14-CC and CD14-TT including carrier proteins M88 and TRAM
3. IgE interactions are not the norm. IL4, IL5, eosinophils and neutrophils are involved and difficult to control.
Peltola et al (2004) Isolation of toxigenic Nocardia strains from indoor environments and description of two new Nocardiopsis species, N. exhalans sp. nov. and N. umisdischolae sp. nov. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4293-304.
2. Destruction of Cell membrane of sperm cells.
3. The toxic properties suggests good survival in the indoor environment. #26
A. 12 species of Aspergillus
B. 11 species of Penicillium.
C. Others – Emericella, Memnoniella, Trichoderma species
Time does not allow us to go into full details of these contaminants.