Obstacles to Development. REASONS WHY THINGS DO NOT GET BETTER. GOVERNMENT. The decisions governments make particularly in terms of public spending The economic / political ideology The level of corruption The amount of bureaucracy and hindrance to private enterprise
Obstacles to Development
REASONS WHY THINGS DO NOT GET BETTER
Map shows number of days travel to nearest city.
Countries with coasts and deep sea ports are able to import and export products easily and therefore be more integrated into the Global Economy.
Top container ports
IMPACT OF AID AND DEBT RELIEF
Aid received, per capita, in 2007, in $ of Official Development Assistance per person. Note that grey countries can either be non-recipients or ones for which data is unavailable. The data were converted into dollars using exchange rates, hence may not accurately reflect the purchasing power of the foreign aid receive
What are the different types of AID?
What is AID?
... given to those in need
What different types of Aid are there?
Duration: long-term, short-term, emergency
Delivery: financial, goods, services from trained people
Source: government, non-governmental organisations (NGO’s), charity, individuals
Dependency: tied aid
These tend to be big schemes and decisions are made by the national government. Local people who often live near the scheme do not get involved in the process
e.g. World Bank, TNCs
Top Down Decision Making
Bottom Up Decision Making
e.g. World Bank, TNCs
Decision made here
Conditions often attached to the loans
Relies on external links and technology
Dams etc provide energy needed for the country to develop
Uses machinery etc rather than providing jobs for local people
Top Down Approach
Often environmentally effective as they use cheaper fuels e.g. HEP
Country gets into debt as it borrows money from the World Bank etc
As these areas grow the take away resources from peripheral areas
Involve the local people
Appropriate technology to the local skill level
Bottom up Approach
Very limited impact of national poverty levels
Looking at both Top down and bottom up approaches to development, which do you feel are the best option and why?
* Emergency aid: following a disaster
*any unprocessed or partially processed good, as grain, fruits, and vegetables, or precious metals.
economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s