Vertebrates
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Vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals with a backbone. Only 5-10% of animals are vertebrates on Earth, yet we are most familiar with them! Vertebrates have muscles , a digestive system, a respiratory system, a circulatory system and a nervous system.

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Vertebrates

Vertebrates

Vertebrates are animals with a backbone. Only 5-10% of animals are vertebrates on Earth, yet we are most familiar with them!

Vertebrates have muscles, a digestivesystem, a respiratorysystem, a circulatorysystem and anervoussystem.

The characteristic that distinguishes vertebrates from other animals is the endoskeleton, or internal support system that grows along with the animal.

Endoskeletons allow for more flexibilityand ways of moving than exoskeletons do.


Five characteristics of all vertebrates

FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL VERTEBRATES

  • 1. Have a vertebral column – a “backbone”

  • 2. Usually are larger than invertebrates

  • 3. More complex and advanced than invertebrates

  • 4. All have brains and an advanced nervous system

  • 5. Have muscles and skeletons


Mammals

Mammals

>5,000 species identified


Mammals1

Mammals

Characteristics

  • Hair during some point in life.

    • Hair has many functions, such as regulating body temperature or performing a particular function. Ex: Porcupines – Self defense

  • Teeth for consuming different kinds of food

  • Produce Milk

  • Endotherm (Warm-blooded)

    • This means they maintain a constant body temperature. To do this they use some to the food they consume to generate body heat.


Mammals2

Mammals

Reproduction

  • Monotremes

    • Mammals that lay eggs

    • Ex: Duck-billed platypus

  • Marsupials

    • Develop in a pouch

    • Ex: Kangaroo

  • Placental Mammals

    • A mammal that develops inside its mother's body until its body systems can function independently

    • Ex: Humans

  • Placental mammals give live birth

  • Placenta protects embryo and transports nutrients, water, and oxygen


Mammals3

Mammals

Special Adaptations

  • Hair:

    • Helps to maintain body

      temperature

    • Water resistant

    • Protection

  • Blubber:

    • Maintains body temperature

    • Energy storage


Mammals4

Mammals

EXAMPLES???


Birds

Birds

10,000 species identified


Birds1

Birds


Birds2

Birds

Characteristics

  • Feathers

  • Beak

  • Endotherm

    • This means they maintain a constant body temperature. To do this they use some to the food they consume to generate body heat.

  • 4 limbs ( a pair of scaly legs & a pair of wings)

  • Eggs have hard shells


Birds3

Birds

  • Adaptions to Reproduction

  • Eggs –

    • Laid in nests

    • Eggs are sat on by parents

    • Parents care for young


Birds4

Birds

Special Adaptions

  • Hollow bones - lightweight for flight

  • Flight feathers - aid in flight

  • Endoskeleton - bones are fused together

  • Air Sacs & Lungs – allow birds to hold their breath as they fly


Birds5

Birds

EXAMPLES

  • Flightless birds

    • Birds which lack the ability to fly, relying instead on their ability to run or swim.

    • Ex: Penguin

  • Water birds

    • refer to birds that live on or around water

    • Ex: Pelican

  • Birds of Prey

    • Birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing, using their keen senses, especially vision

    • Ex: Eagle

  • Song birds

    • Birds that have distinctive songs

    • Ex: Chickadee


Vertebrates

Fish

20,000 species identified


Vertebrates

Fish


Vertebrates

Fish

Characteristics

  • Lives in water

  • Have gills

    • Remove oxygen from water and exchanges it for CO2 in fish’s blood

  • Lateral Lines

    • Sensory organ that allows fish to sense organisms near by

  • Swim Bladder

    • Allows fish to adjust how high or low it floats


Vertebrates

Fish

Adaptions to Reproduction

  • Eggs -

    Laid in water & left to hatch on their own


Vertebrates

Fish

Special Adaptations and Examples

  • Jawless Fish

    • Tube-like shape

    • Digestive system without the stomach

    • Ex: Lamprey

  • Cartilagenous Fish

    • No bones, flexible tissue called cartilage

    • Mouth on underside of body

    • Ex: Sharks

  • Bony Fish

    • 96% of fish are bony

    • Skeletons made of hard bone

    • Ex: Goldfish


Reptiles

Reptiles

<6,500 species identified


Reptiles1

Reptiles


Reptiles2

Reptiles

Characteristics

  • Two pairs of legs (4 limbs)

  • Ectotherm

    • Animals whose body temperature changes with environmental conditions

  • Tough, dry skin covered by scales

  • Have lungs

    • Obtains oxygen through respiratory organ (lungs)

  • Sensory organs adapted for land

  • Lay eggs with shells on land


Reptiles3

Reptiles

Adaptation for Reproduction

  • Eggs -

    • Laid on land.

    • Parents dig or build a nest for the eggs

    • Some guard eggs/ others leave

    • Young look like little adults


Reptiles4

Reptiles

Special Adaptations

  • Skin – thick waterproof scales to protect them

  • Eggs with shells - allows them to survive in hot, dry environments


Reptiles5

Reptiles

EXAMPLES???

  • Turtles & Tortoises

  • Lizards & Snakes

  • Crocodiles & Alligators

  • Tuatara

    • Not a lizard, found in New Zealand, lived with the dinosaurs!!


Amphibians

Amphibians

~5,500 species identified


Amphibians1

Amphibians

Characteristics

  • Two pairs of legs (4 limbs)

  • Ectotherm

  • Obtain CO2 through smooth, moist skin

  • Many have lungs

  • Sensory organs adapted for land


Amphibians2

Amphibians

Adaptations to Reproduction

  • Eggs –

  • Laid in water & hatch on their own.

  • Life Cycle –

    1. Egg

    2. Larva

    3. Tadpole

    4. Frog


Amphibians3

Amphibians

Special Adaptations and Examples

Skin – respiratory organ that only functions when wet

  • Frogs & Toads

  • Salamanders, Newts & Mudpuppies

  • Caecilians- worm-like amphibian


Amphibians4

Amphibians

EXAMPLES???


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