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Elements of the scientific article. Professor Magne Nylenna, M.D., PhD [email protected] Which articles would you like to read?. Clear message Original Topical Reliable Of interest and relevance Well written Short. Writing a paper. Other readers are just like you!.

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Elements of the scientific article

Elements of the scientific article

Professor Magne Nylenna, M.D., PhD

[email protected]


Which articles would you like to read
Which articles would you like to read?

  • Clear message

  • Original

  • Topical

  • Reliable

  • Of interest and relevance

  • Well written

  • Short



Other readers are just like you
Other readers are just like you!

  • Imagine a personified reader (like yourself) when you write

  • What you would like to read would others like as well

  • Dilemma:

    • As readers we prefer short, clear texts

    • As authors we (often) prefer long, difficult texts


What are editors looking for
What are editors looking for?

  • Is it new?

  • Is it true?

  • Is it important?

    (Stephen Lock, BMJ)


The perfect paper
”The perfect paper”

  • Original

  • High scientific reliability

  • Clinical impact

  • Topicality

  • Well written

  • Brief


The basic element of a paper
The basic element of a paper

  • A paragraph

    • logically organized,

    • with an internal continuity,

    • telling a story


The paragraph
The paragraph

  • A topic sentence – stating the message

  • Organize supporting sentences so that they say something about the topic

  • End with a conclusion leading to the next paragraph


IMRAD – structure

  • Introduction

    • Why?

  • Methods

    • How?

  • Results

    • What did you find?

  • Discussion

    • What does it mean?


Introduction

  • What have you done?

  • Two aims:

    • Catch the interest of the reader

    • Helping the reader to understand the rest of the paper

  • Three parts:

    • Known

    • Unknown

    • Problem/Question


The introduction
The introduction:

  • Funnel from what is known to the question

  • Tell a story

  • Keep the number of references to a minimum

  • State the question

  • Keep it short!

Essentials of writing biomedical research papers(Mimi Zeiger, McGraw-Hill,1991)


Writing an introduction to the introduction j techn writing comm 2009 39 321 9

Quotation

Scenario

Event

A statistic

Scope

Everyday occurence

Statement of fact

Definition

Question

Lack of research

Overview

Previous study

Combinations

Writing an introduction to the introduction(J Techn Writing Comm 2009;39:321-9.)


Material and methods

  • How was the study designed?

  • How (and when and where) was the study performed?

  • Data analysis

  • Aim for six paragraphs elaborating on what you did


Results

  • Six paragraphs describing what you found

  • Systematic presentation of your findings

  • Logical order

    • From general to detailed information

    • Cronological

  • Tables/figures


Discussion

  • The difficult part

  • What it all means in 6-7paragraphs

  • Limit the discussion to your own findings

  • Structure

    • Summarize main findings

    • Limits/strengths of your study

    • Interpretation (comparision with others)

    • Importance

  • End with a clear message


Abstract

Background

Material and methods

Findings

Interpretation

Background

Objective

Design

Setting

Patients

Interventions

Measurements

Results

Limitations

Conclusions

Abstract


Randomized controlled trials consort consolidated standards of reporting trials
Randomized controlled trialsCONSORT(Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)


Observational studies strobe strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology
Observational studiesSTROBE(Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology


Metaanalyses and systematic reviewsPRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses



What is a good title
What is a good title?

  • Await headlines (and abstract) until the final manuscript version

  • A good title should be both informative and exciting

  • Be careful with statements and ”conclusions” in titles

  • A question in the title must be answered in the paper


Reference list
Reference list

  • Only published, openly available sources should be included

  • References should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text

  • The reference list should be accordingly numbered and systematic:

    • Author(s) (up to 6, thereafter et.al.).

    • Title.

    • Publication.

      • Article: Jounal (abbr), year;volume:page-page.

      • Book: Place of publishing: Publisher, Year.

    • DOI (digital object identifier)


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