A woman s struggles
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A Woman’s Struggles . By: Amber Moore, Courtney White & Devina Flores . Participation in the Civil Rights Movement . In the 1960’s women from all walks of life participated in the civil rights movement Women were important members of new groups such as: SNCC, SCLC, and NAACP

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A Woman’s Struggles

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A woman s struggles

A Woman’s Struggles

By: Amber Moore, Courtney White & Devina Flores


Participation in the civil rights movement

Participation in the Civil Rights Movement

  • In the 1960’s women from all walks of life participated in the civil rights movement

  • Women were important members of new groups such as: SNCC, SCLC, and NAACP

  • They found themselves treated as second class citizens; men talked about women as if they were superior

  • Women eventually started making liberation/ traditional groups whose purpose was to improve rights for themselves.


Taking it to the supremes

Taking it to the Supremes

  • Initial efforts to convince the Supreme Court to give woman equal protection rights under the 14th amendment were unsuccessful

  • Hoyt v. Florida :

    Facts of the Case – Women were exempt from being apart of a jury and when Mrs. Hoyt was convicted by an all men jury, she thought the Florida statute was violating the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment.

    Decision- The court ruled in favor of Florida (9-0) stating “male- female disproportions on jury lists carried no constitutional significance.”


Gender based discrimination

Gender Based Discrimination

Since 1976 the Court has found the following kinds of practices as a violation of the 14th amendment:

  • Single-sex public nursing schools

  • Laws that consider males adults at 21 and females at 18

  • Laws that allow women but not men to receive alimony

  • State prosecutor’s of peremptory challenges to reject men or women to create more sympathetic juries

  • Virginia's maintenance of an all-male military college the Virginia military institute

  • Different requirements for a child’s acquisition of citizenship based on whether the citizen parents is a mother or a father

  • The court has upheld the following governmental practices and laws

  • - draft registration provisions for males only

  • - state statutory rape laws that apply only to female victims


The creation of now

The Creation of NOW

  • In 1966 after the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission failed to enforce the law as it applied to sex discrimination.

  • Female activists formed the National Organization for Woman (NOW was modeled closely on the NAACP)

  • Two goals to achieve:

    - achievement of equality either by passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution

    - or by judicial decision


A woman s struggles

Timeline

1961: The President’s Commission on the Status of Women was created shortly after JFK was elected. (headed by former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt)

1964: The Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination based on not only race but sex.

1973: In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme court decided thatwomen had a right to privacy when it includes terminating a baby

1963: The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan led women to question their lives in society and help them recognize something was wrong.

1972: Equal rights Amendment (ERA) bar discrimination against women by federal or state governments


Ending quote

Ending Quote 

“Woman have won important victories under the act, but a large wage gap between men and women continues to exist, as underscored women in 2004 earned less than 77% of what men earned.”


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