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Earth’s Physical Geography. Chapter 2, Section 1. Our Planet, the Earth. The Earth, sun, planets, and stars are all part of a galaxy, or family of stars. What is the name of the galaxy we live in? The sun is the center of our galaxy. Days and Nights.

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Earth s physical geography

Earth’s Physical Geography

Chapter 2, Section 1


Our planet the earth
Our Planet, the Earth

  • The Earth, sun, planets, and stars are all part of a galaxy, or family of stars.

  • What is the name of the galaxy we live in?

  • The sun is the center of our galaxy.


Days and nights
Days and Nights

  • Sun  93 million miles away; provides the Earth with light and heat

  • The Earth travels around the sun in an oval-shape path called an orbit

  • It takes one year (365 days) for the Earth to complete one revolution, a circular journey around the Earth


Days and nights1
Days and Nights

  • Earth spins as it revolves around the sun on its axis, an imaginary line running through the Earth between the North and South poles

  • A complete turn takes 24 hours and is called a revolution

  • As Earth rotates…

    • It is daytime on the side facing the sun

    • It is night on the side away from the sun


Seasons
Seasons

  • Earth’s axis is on an angle

  • At certain times of the year, days are long than nights

  • At other times, nights are longer than days

  • Earth’s orbit is at a tilt

    • The tilt causes a region to face toward the sun for more hours than it faces away from the sun

      • Days are longer

    • At other times, the region faces away from the sun for more hours than it faces toward the sun

      • Days are shorter


Seasons1
Seasons

  • Earth’s tilt and orbit cause changes in temperature during the seasons

  • The warmth you feel at any time of year depends on how directly the sunlight falls upon you


Latitudes
Latitudes

  • In some places on Earth, the sun is directly overhead at particular days during the year

  • On March 21 and September 23, the sun is directly above the Equator at 0 degrees latitude.

    • The days are almost exactly as long as the nights

    • Spring and fall equinoxes


Latitudes1
Latitudes

  • Tropic of Cancer  23 ½ degrees North of the Equator

    • Sun shines directly above on June 21 or the 22nd

    • First day of summer (summer solstice) in the Northern hemisphere

  • Tropic of Capricorn  23 ½ degrees South of the Equator

    • Sun shines directly above on December 21 or 22nd

    • First day of winter (winter solstice) in the Northern hemisphere

  • When would summer solstice occur in the Southern hemisphere?


Latitudes2
Latitudes

  • The area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn is called the low latitudes, or the tropics.

  • Any location in the low latitudes receives direct sunlight at some time during the year. HOT!


Latitudes3
Latitudes

  • Two other distinct regions  the Arctic Circle 66 ½ degrees north of the Equator and the Antarctic Circle 66 ½ degrees south of the Equator

  • The regions between these circles and the poles are high latitudes, or polar zones

    • Receive no direct sunlight… COLD!!


Latitudes4
Latitudes

  • Middle latitudes, or the temperate zones, receive fairly direct sunlight at some times, and at others fairly indirect sunlight

  • Seasons occur here.

    • Each lasts about three months and has distinct patterns of daylight, temperature, and weather


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