Paleontology earth history
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Paleontology Earth History. What is Evolution. Genetic change over time Resulting in new species There is more to evolution than Change Trees change, mountains change Evolution is a change in genes that control traits in an organism. Why. The Environment changes

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Paleontology Earth History

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PaleontologyEarth History


What is Evolution

  • Genetic change over time

  • Resulting in new species

  • There is more to evolution than Change

  • Trees change, mountains change

  • Evolution is a change in genes that control traits in an organism


Why

  • The Environment changes

  • A trait which is good for one environment may not be good for different environment

  • Basketball v. Football

  • Playing a guitar v. Flute

  • Geometry v. Algerbra


How do changes take place

  • Natural Selection

    • Nature chooses

    • Conditions in nature select for traits in organism which will make that organism the most successful.

    • Selected for…Passed on

    • Selected against…extinct


Natural Selection v. Artificial Selection

  • Natural…Nature chooses

  • Artificial Selection…Humans choose


Artificial Selection

  • All that you see are things that humans have chosen

  • The stuff you don’t see are items we have not selected for…they may become extinct...or retro in twenty years.

  • Music, clothes, TV, etc. Anything “popular” has been selected for. The unpopular…not around.


Natural Selection…How does it work?

  • More organism are born than can survive.

  • All of the organisms (offspring) will have genetic changes due to sexual reproduction and mutation

  • Some of these changes will be beneficial to an organism. These benefits lead to a stronger organism.

  • These stronger traits are pass down to future generations.


Paleontology

  • What happened

  • Why did it happen

  • When did it happen

  • Order of occurrence


SuperpositionOldest on Bottom…Youngest on top


Superposition In Chicago


Uniformitarianism

  • Process going on today have been going on since the earth formed 4.5 bya

    • Weathering

    • Erosion

    • Plate Tectonics


vs. Catastrophisma series of catastrophes created the earth


Relative Dating

  • No…its not something they do in Kentucky

  • Compare several items of first to occur to last to occur

  • No exact age is applied

  • I am older than you. My dad is older than me


Oldest to Youngest


Absolute dating

  • How many years ago

  • Assign and age to a fossil


How to assign age

  • Tree rings

  • Radioactive decay

    • Process by which a radioactive material becomes stable

    • Nothing effects the rate of decay

    • Excellent tool to measure age

    • Isotope (parents) decay (become stable) into daughter C-14 decays into N-14


Cladistics

  • Uses absolute age

  • Uses DNA (comparative Genetic Material)

  • Create a Logical progression of the evolution of similar species


Cladistics


Another Vert Evolution


Vert Evolution


Evol of dinos


Dinosaurs


Primate Evolution


Humans did not evolve from “ApesThey have a common ancestor


Human Migration…out of Africa


SPECIES TIME PERIOD

Ardipithicus ramidus 5 to 4 million years ago Australopithecus anamensis 4.2 to 3.9 million years ago

Australopithecus afarensis 4 to 2.7 million years ago

Australopithecus africanus 3 to 2 million years ago

Australopithecus robustus 2.2 to 1.6 million years ago

Homo habilis 2.2 to 1.6 million years ago

Homo erectus 2.0 to 0.4 million years ago

Homo sapiens archaic 400 to 200 thousand years ago

Homo sapiens neandertalensi 200 to 30 thousand years ago

Homo sapiens sapiens 200 thousand years ago to present


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