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1. Industrialization and Nationalism 1800 - 1870
2. The Industrial Revolution 19.1
3. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain With its plentiful natural resources, workers, wealth, and markets, Great Britain became the starting place of the Industrial Revolution.
Factors in Great Britain becaming the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution:
Agricultural practices became more efficient, producing more food at lower prices.
4. The enclosure movement of the eighteenth century caused many peasants to move to towns, increasing the labor supply.
The wealthy merchant class of Britain had a ready supply of capital to invest in the new industrial machines and factories. Entrepreneurs devised new business methods and ways to make profits.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
5. Britain had plentiful natural resources, such as water, coal, and iron ore.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
6. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain New technological advances, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle, gave Britain an advantage in producing inexpensive cotton goods.
The cotton industry became more productive when Scottish engineer James Watt modified his steam engine to drive machinery.
7. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain The steam engine was crucial to Britain?s Industrial Revolution, leading to an expansion of the coal and iron industries.
Puddling was a process used to make high quality iron for the production of new machines, especially trains.
Factory owners wanted to use their machinery constantly, so laborers worked in shifts and machines ran continuously. Child labor was common.
8. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Railroads moved and manufactured goods more efficiently.
The first commercial railroad connected the cotton-manufacturing town of Manchester to the port of Liverpool.
Railroads were a key component of the Industrial Revolution and led to ongoing economic growth.
9. The Spread of Industrialization The pace of industrialization in Europe and the United States depended on many factors, including government policy.
Governments in Belgium, France, and the German states supported industrialization and provided funds to build roads, canals, and railroads.
When the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States, thousands of miles of roads and canals were built to link East and West.
10. The Spread of Industrialization In 1807, Robert Fulton built the first paddle-wheel steamboat, improving transportation on the waterways. Eventually, railroads provided the most effective means of transportation.
As farmers and immigrants filled the cities, a labor force became available to the factory owners.
Women and children, who were paid lower wages, often worked in the factories.
11. Social Impact in Europe Industrialization urbanized Europe and created new social classes, as well as the conditions for the rise of socialism.
European cities and towns grew dramatically by 1850. Factories were built in towns and cities to take advantage of their increasing populations.
The rapid growth of cities led to overcrowding, disease, and poverty.
12. Social Impact in Europe Industrial capitalism rose during the Industrial Revolution and produced a new middle class that built the factories, bought the machinery, and developed the markets.
The Industrial Revolution also led to the development of an industrial working class.
The working class had little protection from factory and mine owners and faced dangerous working conditions.
13. Social Impact in Europe Women and children made up a significant portion of the labor force due to their low wages.
Reformers of these harsh working conditions advocated socialism and believed that public ownership of production would allow wealth to be more evenly distributed.
Utopian socialists such as Robert Owen believed that an ideal society could be created through socialism.
14. Reaction and Revolution 19.2
15. The Congress of Vienna After Napoleon?s defeat, the victors met and redrew the map of Europe to create a balance of power and to strengthen conservatism.
After the defeat of Napoleon, Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met at the Congress of Vienna to restore peace and balance to Europe.
16. The Congress of Vienna Klemens von Metternich of Vienna wanted to restore the monarchies that had ruled prior to Napoleon.
The European powers divided the land to ensure political and military stability. They agreed to meet regularly in conferences known as the Concert of Europe.
17. The Congress of Vienna The European powers believed in a political philosophy known as conservatism, which is based on tradition, the value of social stability, and organized religion.
The European powers, except for Britain, adopted the principle of intervention, which allowed the great powers to send armies into nations where there were revolutions.
18. The Congress of Vienna The great powers used military forces to put an end to revolutions in Spain and Italy and restored monarchies to these nations.
19. Forces of Change Liberals and nationalists opposed the existing political system and threatened the conservative regimes.
While conservative governments were in charge, powerful forces such as liberalism were spreading.
Liberals wanted to protect civil liberties, such as freedom of the press and speech, religious tolerance, and government rule by constitution.
Many liberals wanted a written document like the American Bill of Rights.
20. Forces of Change Another force of change in nineteenth-century Europe was nationalism. Nationalism arose when people began to identify themselves based on language, region, culture, and customs.
Nationalism was a threat to conservatism because giving independence to nationalistic groups would upset the balance of power established at the Congress of Vienna.
21. Forces of Change Beginning in 1830, liberalism and nationalism led to revolution in Europe. France and Belgium overthrew the current regimes, while Poland and Italy were unsuccessful in their rebellions.
22. The Revolutions of 1848 Beginning in France in 1848, the spirit of revolution spread quickly over Europe, but the uprisings were largely suppressed.
Economic troubles in France led to a new rebellion in 1846. The monarchy was overthrown, and the new government established the policy of universal male suffrage.
23. The Revolutions of 1848 In 1848, a new constitution was ratified, making the Second Republic the new government of France.
The first elected president was Charles Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte.
The 38 independent states of the German Confederacy attempted to unify in 1848. However, the Frankfurt Assembly failed to gain the support of Frederick William VI of Prussia.
24. The Revolutions of 1848 Austria was a multinational state including Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, Poles, Slovaks, Slovenes, Romanians, Croats, Italians, Serbians, and Ukranians.
Hungarian and Czechs demanded their own governments, but were crushed by Austrian and Russian forces in Vienna and Prague.
Revolts in northern Italian states of Lombardy and Venetia were also put down by Austrian authorities in 1849.
25. National Unification and Nationalism 19.3
26. Toward National Unification The rise of nationalism led to the unification of Italy and Germany.
Russia, seeking warm-water ports, invaded the Balkan provinces of Moldavia and Walachia.
The Ottoman Empire controlled these provinces and declared war on Russia.
27. Toward National Unification Great Britain and France, fearful of a stronger Russia, joined the Ottoman Turks. Heavy casualties caused Russia to pull out, and the Treaty of Paris (1856) placed the provinces under international control.
The effect of the Crimean War was that the Concert of Europe was destroyed. Austria did not support its long-term ally in the war, and Russia and Austria became enemies.
28. Toward National Unification Without Russia, Austria could no longer prevent Germany and Italy from unifying.
In 1850, people looked to the northern kingdom of Piedmont to lead the unification of Italy.
29. Toward National Unification Piedmont made an alliance with France. In return for territory, France would support the unification of northern Italy.
In the south, patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi took control of Sicily, Naples, and the southern mainland of Italy. Garibaldi then turned over control of the south to King Victor Emanuel II of Piedmont.
30. Toward National Unification Italy was finally unified after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
Germans looked to Prussia in the cause of German unification. Prussia was an authoritarian state known for its militarism.
In the 1860s, the prime minister Otto von Bismarck ran Prussia without the approval of parliament. He strengthened the army, collected taxes, and expanded into Denmark.
31. Toward National Unification In 1866, Prussia defeated Austria and organized the North German Confederation. The Catholic provinces in the south signed a military alliance with Prussia.
In 1870, Prussia and France went to war. Prussia was victorious and was given the territories of Alsace and Lorraine.
The southern German states agreed to enter into union with Prussia. The Second German Empire, with William I as kaiser, or emperor, was established.
32. Nationalism and Reform in Europe While Italy and Germany were being unified, other states in Europe were also changing.
Great Britain was able to avoid the revolutions of Europe by making social and political reforms to stabilize the country.
Parliament expanded voting privileges to the middle class, so the middle class now had an interest in ruling.
33. Nationalism and Reform in Europe The Industrial Revolution allowed wages of workers to rise significantly, so the working class was now able to share in the prosperity.
Queen Victoria, who ruled from 1837 to 1901, reflected the nationalistic pride of British citizens.
34. Nationalism and Reform in Europe France
In France, Louis-Napoleon asked the French people for the restoration of the empire. In the plebiscite, 97 percent of the people wanted an emperor.
Napoleon III ruled an authoritarian government that limited civil liberties.
Napoleon III expanded the economy with government subsidies for infrastructure improvement.
35. Nationalism and Reform in Europe He rebuilt Paris with wide boulevards, public squares, underground sewers, and street lights.
Napoleon III gave the legislature more power when opposition to some of his economic policies arose.
The Austrian Empire
Nationalism was a problem for the Austrian Empire because it contained so many different ethnic groups.
The Compromise of 1867 created a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
36. Nationalism and Reform in Europe Each component of the empire had its own constitution, its own legislature, and its own capital?Vienna for Austria and Budapest for Hungary.
They were held together by a shared monarch, army, and financial system.
37. Nationalism and Reform in Europe Russia
After being defeated in the Crimean War, Russia realized it had to modernize.
Russia was a large, rural, agricultural society that depended on the authority of the central government to function as a European power.
38. Nationalism and Reform in Europe Czar Alexander II decided to enact reforms, and in 1861 issued an emancipation edict freeing the serfs.
The new system did not improve the lives of the serfs, however. Alexander?s other reforms led to his assassination in 1881. His son, Alexander III, returned to the old methods of repression.
39. Nationalism in the United States Unified by the War of 1812, the United States later entered a bloody civil war that lasted from 1861 to 1865.
In the United States, the Federalists and Republicans struggled over political control of the country. Victory in the War of 1812 ended these divisions and gave Americans a surge in nationalistic pride.
40. In the middle of the nineteenth century, slavery became the biggest threat to American political and social systems.
Abolitionism in the North challenged the Southern way of life.
With the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, South Carolina voted to secede. Six more Southern states joined them and formed the Confederate States of America.
41. Nationalism in the United States The American Civil War lasted for four years. The Union defeated the Confederacy in 1865, ending slavery and creating one nation again.
42. Romanticism and Realism 19.4
43. Romanticism In the arts, romanticism stressed individualism and emotion instead of the Enlightenment?s focus on universalism and reason.
At the end of the eighteenth century, a new intellectual movement known as romanticism emerged.
44. Romanticism Romanticism emphasized feeling and emotion and valued individualism.
Romantic artists painted as a reflection of the artist?s inner feelings and infused warmth and emotion into paintings.
Ludwig van Beethoven wrote music with powerful melodies that created dramatic intensity.
Literature reflected a romantic interest in the past. Writers chose medieval subjects that evoked strong feelings of nationalism.
45. Romanticism Mary Shelley and Edgar Allan Poe wrote chilling, Gothic literature.
Poetry was the ideal form of expression to romantics, and love of nature was a popular topic.
46. New Age of Science Rapid advances in science and technology fueled industrial growth, made medical care more effective, and challenged religious faith.
New discoveries in science led to a growing faith in science, which, in turn, undermined the religious faith of many people.
47. New Age of Science Scientists such as Louis Pasteur and Dmitry Mendeleyev made advancements in medicine and chemistry.
For many people in the nineteenth century, the truth gleaned from science led to an increasing secularization of society.
In 1859, Charles Darwin wrote his book On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection, based on the idea that all species evolved according to a principle known as organic evolution.
48. New Age of Science Darwin explained that some species are more adaptable to their environment than others, and, through a process called natural selection, the most fit species would survive.
Darwin?s inclusion of humans in his theory was very controversial, although most scientists and intellectuals gradually came to accept his theory.