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HUGEPAGE SUPPORT IN LINUX BASED VIRTUALIZATION. External guide– Internal guide- Mr. Kedar Sovani Prof Mukta Takalikar DREAMZ Group. PICT,Pune . Group members – Aditya Gadre B3054204 Keshav Darak B3054243 Kaustubh Kabra B3054279 Ashwin Vasani B3054365.

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HUGEPAGE SUPPORT IN LINUX BASED VIRTUALIZATION

  • External guide–Internal guide-

    Mr. KedarSovani Prof MuktaTakalikar

    DREAMZ Group. PICT,Pune.

  • Group members–

    • AdityaGadre B3054204

    • KeshavDarak B3054243

    • KaustubhKabra B3054279

    • AshwinVasani B3054365


Problem definition
PROBLEM DEFINITION

To design a memory management unit (MMU) based paging mechanism in Xen hypervisor which will add support for huge pages (2MB) such that 4 KB pages and huge pages will now co-exist for a paravirtualized domain kernel to improve performance.


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE


Huge page
HUGE PAGE

Huge page translation reduces the normal page walk by 1 level.

The Huge page TLB cache improves the performance by increasing the speed by15% to 20%.


Virtual address

3

Only 2 memory access additional to reach to a byte

4 KB page

Singleton

Physical

address

1

2

PS

2 MB page

Huge Page

3 memory acccess additional to reach to a byte

Physical

address

Virtual address


Huge page1
HUGE PAGE

Huge page translation reduces the normal page walk by 1 level.

The Huge page TLB cache improves the performance by increasing the speed by15% to 20%.


Tlb scenario
TLB Scenario

RAM

TLB Cache

VA PA

1

entry

512

entries

2 MB


Bare metal vs xen
Bare Metal VS XEN

Hardware

Hardware


XEN

??


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE


Requesting 2MB

Requesting 4KB

DOMU

(1)

DOM U

(2)

Memory

Request denied

Hypervisor

RAM


Problem definition1
PROBLEM DEFINITION

To design a memory management unit (MMU) based paging mechanism in Xen hypervisor which will add support for huge pages (2MB) such that 4 KB pages and huge pages will now co-exist for a paravirtualized domain kernel to improve performance.


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

  • APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE


CONCEPTS

Kernel

Domain Kernel

Domain Kernel

VA

VA_to_PFN

VA_to_PFN

PFN

RAM

Hypervisor

P2M

MFN

  • VA : Virtual Address in Kernel

  • PFN : Physical Frame Number

  • MFN : Machine Frame Number

  • P2M Mapping: Physical to Machine Mapping


IMPLEMENTATION OVERVIEW

Requesting 2MB

Requesting 4KB

DOMU

(1)

Hypervisor

Boot time reservation of memory

RAM


Implementation steps :

1. Domain creation

2. Domain booting

3. Demand supply


Implementation steps :

1. Domain creation

2. Domain booting

3. Demand supply


Domain creation
Domain creation

Domain’s Config

memory=900

----------------------

----------------------

----------------------

struct domain{

hugepage_num;

hugepage_list;

};

hugepage_num=50

50

Domain Create

MFNs

Xen’s Allocator

RAM

Xen

MFNs


Implementation steps :

1. Domain creation

2. Domain booting

3. Demand supply


Domain booting
Domain booting

xen_extra_mem_start

Kernel

900M

800M

Kernel Booting

Hypercall to

Get hugepage count

Xen Hypervisor

struct domain{

hugepage_num;

hugepage_list;

};

PFNs

50


Implementation steps :

1. Domain creation

2. Domain booting

3. Demand supply


Demand
Demand

xen_extra_mem_start

Kernel

900M

800M

Hugepage Request

Kernel

PFN

Hypercall to

Allocate hugepage

P2M

MFN

Xen Hypervisor

RAM

MFN

Xen

PFNs

MFNs

struct domain{

hugepage_num;

hugepage_list;

};


FINAL VISION(Transparent Huge Pages)

Requesting 4KB

Requesting 2MB

DOMU

(1)

DOM U

(2)

Hypervisor

RAM


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

  • APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO-

AMAZON DEMO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE


Performance graphs
PERFORMANCE GRAPHS

Threads =4

Threads =6

Threads =8

Threads =10

X axis: Memory read and wrote (in MBs)

Y axis: Time required (in seconds)


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

  • APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE


Challenge 1 :

Paging

DOCUMENTATION


Challenge 2 : Handling read-only ptes in guest domains

Read-Only Access to Guest Page Tables

Read-Only Access to Guest Page Tables

Xen Hypervisor


Challenge 3 (1/2): Aligned PFNs and unaligned MFNs

Domain Kernel

512 aligned pfns for Huge Pages

PFN

2MB Boundary

Xen Hypervisor

Unaligned non- contiguous 512MFNs

MFN


Challenge 3 (1/2): Aligned PFNs and unaligned MFNs

Domain Kernel

Unaligned un-contiguous PFN

PFN

Xen Hypervisor

Aligned (512 )MFN

MFN

2MB Boundary


Our solution: Aligned PFNs and Aligned MFNs

Domain Kernel

512 aligned pfns for Huge Pages

PFN

2MB Boundary

Hypervisor can complete request successfully

Aligned (512 )MFN

MFN

2MB Boundary


BUSINESS VALUE

ARCHITECTURE

REVIEW

  • APPLICATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

X-XEN

CURRENT SCENARIO

CHALLENGES

IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE



Future enhancements
FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

  • Existing Live Migration implementations need to be compatible with this implementation.

  • Support for 1GB huge pages.


References
REFERENCES

  • http://linuxgazette.net/155/krishnakumar.html : HugeTLB - Large Page Support in the Linux Kernel

  • “Memory Management in Linux”by AbhishekNayani, Mel Gorman & Rodrigo

  • “XEN Memory Management (Intel IA-32)” by Andr´esKrapf.

  • “Memory Overcommit without the commitment” by Dan Magenheimer, Oracle Corp. Xen Summit, June 2008

  • “Xen and art of virtualization”By P. Barham, B.Dragovic, K. Fraser, S. Hand, T. Harris, A. Ho, R. Neugebauer, I. Pratt, and A. Warfield. In Proc. SOSP, 2003


Contribution
CONTRIBUTION

  • Patch submitted for review to Jeremy Fitizhardinge, Keir Fraser and Xen-Devel community

    • http://tinyurl.com/HugePagea2k2Patch1

  • www.github.com/a2k2/

    • Kernel-PV-hugepages

    • Xen-hugepages

  • XEN memory: Enlightening memory management in XEN - Team a2k2

    • www.ashwinvasani.wordpress.com

  • Summarized documentation of the project

    • www.xxen-docs.co.cc


Awards
AWARDS

1

CONCEPTS-2011

  • 1st in Systems

  • 2nd in Open Software

  • PLUG trophy

PROJECT @ INTECHXICATION ,MIT

PAPER PRESENTED @

OTTAWA LINUX SYMPOSIUM

PROJECT @ BHARTEEYAM ,BVP

PROJECT @ TESLA ,MITCOE

PROJECT @ ZION ,DY PATIL

PAPER @ EXCELSIOR ,Sinhagad

PAPER @ TESLA ,MITCOE

POSTER @ TESLA ,MITCOE

2

POSTER @ ZION ,DY PATIL

3

PAPER @ BHARTEEYAM ,BVP

PROJECT @ IMPETUS ,PICT

PAPER @ TECHKRITI , IIT-Kanpur


Enlighteners
ENLIGHTENERS

  • KedarSovani (Marvell & Former Maintainer of Fedora- ARM)

  • Prof. MuktaTakalikar (PICT)

  • Jeremy Fitizhardinge (PV-Kernel maintainer)

  • Keir Fraser (Xen maintainer)

  • Dan Magenheimer (Tmem maintainer)

  • Tim Deegan (Citrix)



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