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Lecture 4: Measuring Corporate Performance. Corporate Performance. Corporate Performance Measured. Market Value Add: Market capitalization minus book value of equity. Economic Value Add: Operating income minus a charge for the cost of capital employed. Also called residual income.

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Corporate performance measured
Corporate Performance Measured

  • Market Value Add: Market capitalization minus book value of equity.

  • Economic Value Add: Operating income minus a charge for the cost of capital employed. Also called residual income.

  • Book Rates of Return: Measure the firm’s profits per dollar of assets. Also known as accounting rates of return because they are based on accounting information (specifically company financials). Three common measures are the return on capital (ROC), the return on equity (ROE), and the return on assets (ROA).


Market value added
Market Value Added

What is it?

Why is it useful?

Defined:

  • Market Capitalization —Total market value of equity, equal to share price times the number of shares outstanding

  • Market Value Added —Market Capitalization – Book Value of Equity


Mva discussion
MVA: Discussion

Consider AT&T and Home Depot

Similar MVA, Different Market-to-Book Ratio

  • Limitations of MVA:

    1. Market value reflects investors’ expectations about future performance, complete with the imprecisions that come with all forecasting.

    2. Market value fluctuates frequently due to reasons outside of the financial managers control.

    3. Privately owned corporations do not have a public market value.

TABLE 4.3


Economic value added
Economic Value Added

Economic Value Added = Operating Income minus the product of cost of capital and total capitalization

Operating Income= Net Income + After-tax Interest

Cost of Capital = The minimum acceptable rate of return on capital investment

Total Capitalization = Total Long-term Capital = Equity + Bonds + other Long-term capital [all capital committed by debt and equity investors]

Defined:


Eva discussion
EVA: Discussion

TABLE 4.4

Consider Coca-Cola and Google

Similar EVA, Different Return on Capital

Why?

* Operating Income = Net Income + After-tax Interest; ROC = Return on Capital


Book rates of return
Book Rates of Return*

  • Book Rates of Return = Accounting Rates of Return = Measures of the firm’s profits per dollar of assets.

  • Return on Capital = (after-tax operating income)/(total capitalization)

  • Return on Assets = (after-tax operating income)/(average total assets)

  • or = (after-tax operating income)/(start of year total assets)

  • Return on Equity = (net income)/(average equity)

  • or = (net income)/(start of year equity)

  • Average Assets = (end of period assets + beginning of period assets)/2

  • Average Equity = (end of period equity + beginning of period equity)/2

*Book Rates of Return are also referred to as Accounting rates of Return


Calculating return on capital
Calculating Return on Capital

Lowe’s Return on Capital

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)


Calculating return on assets
Calculating Return on Assets

Lowe’s Return on Assets

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)


Calculating return on equity
Calculating Return on Equity

Lowe’s Return on Equity

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)


Financial ratios and shareholder value
Financial Ratios and Shareholder Value

Shareholder value depends on good investment and financing decisions.

Financial Ratios help measure the success and soundness of these decisions.


Efficiency ratios

Efficiency Ratios

OR*

How does this ratio measure efficiency?

How does this ratio measure efficiency?

* Either equation is a legitimate way to calculate the asset turnover ratio


Efficiency ratios1
Efficiency Ratios

How does this ratio measure efficiency?

How does this ratio measure efficiency?

How does this ratio measure efficiency?


Calculating an efficiency ratio
Calculating an Efficiency Ratio

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)

Lowe’s Asset Turnover Ratio


Profitability ratios
Profitability Ratios

How does this ratio measure the firm’s profitability?

When is this ratio potentially more useful than just profit margin?

Note: ROC, ROA, ROE and EVA are also typically considered profitability ratios.


Calculating a profitability ratio
Calculating a Profitability Ratio

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)

Lowe’s Operating Profit Margin


Leverage ratios
Leverage Ratios

How does this ratio measure leverage?

How does this ratio measure leverage?


Measuring leverage
Measuring Leverage

How does this ratio measure leverage?

How does this ratio measure leverage?

How does this ratio measure leverage?


Calculating a leverage ratio
Calculating a Leverage Ratio

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)

Lowe’s Times Interest Earned Ratio

COGS stands for Cost of Goods Sold. Expenses include selling, general and administrative costs (and “store operating costs” in this example).


Measuring liquidity
Measuring Liquidity

How does this ratio measure liquidity?

How does this ratio measure liquidity?

  • Liquidity Ratios– Ratios which measure the extent to which the firm has sufficient liquidity in the coming year.

  • Net Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities


Liquidity ratios
Liquidity Ratios

How does this ratio differ form the current ratio? Why might a financial manager prefer it?

How does this ratio differ from the current ratio? Why might a financial manager prefer it?


Calculating a liquidity ratio
Calculating a Liquidity Ratio

Lowe’s Balance Sheet (in $m)

Lowe’s NWC to Total Assets Ratio


The dupont system
The DuPont System

  • DuPont System: A breakdown of ROE and ROA into component ratios


The dupont system roa
The DuPont System: ROA

Asset

Turnover

Operating Profit

Margin



The dupont system roe
The DuPont System: ROE

Leverage

Ratio

Debt

Burden

Operating

Profit

Margin

Asset

Turnover

The last ratio in the DuPont breakdown of ROE is a measure of the firm’s debt burden. The denominator represents free cash flow (Cash available for distribution to investors after the company has paid for any new capital investment or additions to working capital.). If the ratio is close to zero, the firm has a heavy debt burden—much of its free cash flow goes to interest payments.



The role of financial ratios
The Role of Financial Ratios

Table 4.8

Comparability





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