Introduction to Criminal Forensic Science. Define and distinguish forensic science from other sciences Give a brief history of forensic science Describe the services of a typical crime lab Explain the role and responsibility of the expert witness. Objectives.
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The application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police in the criminal justice system.
Mathieu Orfila: established forensic toxicology as a legit science (father of forensic toxicology)
Calvin Goddard: comparison studies with bullets using a comparison microscope
1932: FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) under the direction of J. Edgar Hoover offered forensic services to all law enforcement agencies.
Great Britain: national system of regional laboratories under jurisdiction of Home Office
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation in Quantico, Va.)
The Drug Enforcement Administration labs (DEA) of the Department of Justice
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) of the Departmen of Justice
U.S. Postal Service Inspection Service
Toxicology: determines presence or absence of drugs in body fluids and tissues
Latent fingerprint identification
Polygraph unit (lie detector tests)
Voiceprint analysis (voice comparison, text to speech)
Crime scene investigation unit (group of trained technicians)
1993: Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Case asserted that Frye standard or general acceptance is not an absolute prerequisite to the admissibility of scientific evidence under the Federal Rules of Evidence
Testimony: must be factual
Must be from personal knowledge (not hearsay)
Expert cannot render any view with absolute certainty
May offer opinion based on evidence/testing
Only advocate the TRUTH.