27.7  Wave-particle Duality
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27.7 Wave-particle Duality Experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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27.7 Wave-particle Duality Experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties. Diffraction Interference Photoelectric effect Compton scattering Einstein → E particle = hf wave. 27.8 Wave Nature of Matter Do particles have wave properties?

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27.7 Wave-particle Duality Experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties.

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.7 Wave-particle Duality

    • Experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties.

      • Diffraction

      • Interference

      • Photoelectric effect

      • Compton scattering

    • Einstein → Eparticle = hfwave

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.8 Wave Nature of Matter

    • Do particles have wave properties?

    • De Broglie wavelength of a particle

    • Not noticed for macroscopic objects but important for microscopic objects

      • Diffraction of electrons from a crystal

      • Shown for other subatomic particles as well

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

X-ray diffraction 1912

Electron diffraction 1927

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.10 Early Models of the Atom

    • Plum-pudding model and Rutherford’s experiment

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.10 Early Models of the Atom

    • Rutherford’s “planetary model” - the atom is mostly empty space with a small positive nucleus.

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.11 Atomic Spectra

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.11 Atomic Spectra

    • Each element has its own distinct set of spectral “lines” – like human fingerprints or UPC labels

    • Helium was discovered in the Sun (1868) before on the Earth (1882)

      • The solar spectrum has lines that were not known on the Earth at that time

    • Applications: astronomy, chemistry, forensics, …

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.11 Atomic Spectra

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.12 The Bohr Model

    • Why do atoms only emit and absorb at certain wavelengths? Why are atoms stable?

    • Assumptions of Bohr’s theory

      • 1. The e- moves in circular orbits around the nucleus

      • 2. Only certain orbits are stable

      • 3. Radiation is emitted when the e- “jumps” from a higher energy state to a lower one.

      • 4. The size of the orbits is determined by the e- orbital angular momentum.

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.12 The Bohr Model

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27 7 wave particle duality experiments show light has wave properties or particle properties

  • 27.13 The de Broglie Hypothesis

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