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Chapter 15. Dimensioning. Objectives. Use the concept of dimensioning Explain the idea of tolerance in dimensioning Recall the fundamental rules and apply the techniques for dimensioning

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Chapter 15

Chapter 15



  • Use the concept of dimensioning

  • Explain the idea of tolerance in dimensioning

  • Recall the fundamental rules and apply the techniques for dimensioning

  • Select appropriate dimensions for a moderately complex part and correctly apply them to a drawing of that part


  • Dimensioning is much like creating constraint-based solid models

    • Define the size and location of the features within the software

    • Part is created “virtually” to your size and location specifications

  • Develop strategy for determining the types of dimensions required to define apart

Is the dimension i see on a drawing exact
Is the Dimension I See on a Drawing Exact?

  • Tolerance: amount of variation

  • Tolerance dimensions on a detail drawing:

FIGURE 15.07. The detail drawing of the SHAFT.

What are the rules for dimensioning
What Are the Rules forDimensioning?

  • National standard: ASME Y14.5M-1994 (ANSI Y14.5)

    • Published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers

    • Outlines uniform practices for displaying and interpreting dimensions

Millimeters inches or angstroms
Millimeters, Inches, or Angstroms?

  • International System of Units (SI)

    • Metric

    • Millimeter is standard unit

  • U.S. customary units

    • Decimal inch is standard unit

  • Both standards are used in United States

Types of dimensioning
Types of Dimensioning

  • Different rules apply to metric- and inch-based drawings

    • When using millimeters

      • Show leading zeros for values less than one

      • Do not show trailing zeros

    • When using inches

      • Do not show leading zeros for values less than one

      • Show trailing zeros equal to precision of drawing

Fundamental rules for dimensioning
Fundamental Rules for Dimensioning

  • Standards ensure consistency

  • Examples of fundamental rules

    • Each dimension shall have a tolerance

    • Each necessary dimension of an end product shall be shown; show no more dimensions than those necessary for complete definition

    • The drawing should define a part without specifying manufacturing methods


FIGURE 15.10. Dimensioning terminology.

Redundancy is dumb
Redundancy is Dumb

  • Dimensions should appear only once

    • Placed according to contour rule

FIGURE 15.11. Redundant dimensions in (a) are poor practice. Dimensions in (b) are shown once in the view best suited for viewing.

Redundancy is dumb cont d
Redundancy is Dumb (cont’d.)

  • Consider fit and function when applying dimensions

FIGURE 15.13. Dimensions applied, considering the fit and function of the part

named SPACER.

Redundancy is dumb cont d1
Redundancy is Dumb (cont’d.)

  • Reference dimensions enclosed in parentheses

FIGURE 15.14. Reference dimensions.

Geometrically correct but still wrong
Geometrically Correct, but Still Wrong!

  • When drawings are being used to document parts for manufacture

    • Accepted rules and practices must be followed to ensure acceptable results

Different ways of specifying the same geometry
Different Ways of Specifying the Same Geometry

  • Standard ways to specify particular types of geometry

    • Example: circles dimensioned as diameters and arcs as radii

FIGURE 15.15. Proper dimensioning of circles and arcs.

Identifying and specifying the critical dimensions for part function
Identifying and Specifying the Critical Dimensions for Part Function

  • In the SPACER, most important dimensions are:

    • Size of machined holes

    • Distance between the two holes

FIGURE 15.16. The vise assembly SPACER.

FIGURE 15.17. FunctionTwo possible dimensioned drawings of the SPACER.

Baseline versus chain dimensioning
Baseline versus Chain Dimensioning Function

FIGURE 15.19. Baseline dimensioning.

FIGURE 15.20. Chain dimensioning.

What types of dimensions can be measured and checked
What Types of Dimensions Can Be Measured and Checked? Function

FIGURE 15.21. Checking the location of an arc center.

Guidelines to guide your lines
Guidelines to Guide Your Lines Function

FIGURE 15.22. Contour dimensioning.

Solid lines only
Solid Lines Only Function

  • Dimension only to visible or solid lines

FIGURE 15.24. Dimensioning to solid lines.

Placement and spacing
Placement and Spacing Function

FIGURE 15.25. Dimension placement and spacing.

Font Function

  • Single-stroke gothic lettering

  • Uppercase

  • Typical fonts used in CAD software

    • Century Gothic and Romans.shx

Shortcuts Function

  • Diameters and radii

FIGURE 15.27. Dimensioning cylinders and holes.

FIGURE 15.28. Dimensioning arcs.

Shortcuts Function

  • Chamfers

FIGURE 15.29. Dimensioning chamfers.

Shortcuts cont d
Shortcuts (cont’d.) Function

  • Standard machined holes: countersinks and counterbores

FIGURE 15.30. Dimensioning

the sizes of machined holes.

(a) drill (b) blind (c) counterbore (d) countersink (e) spotface

Shortcuts cont d1
Shortcuts (cont’d.) Function

  • Slots are dimensioned by their diameters

FIGURE 15.32. Dimensioning slots.

Notes Function

  • General notes apply to entire drawing

  • Local notes specified with leader line

FIGURE 15.33. Using local notes.

Considerations for 3 d modeling
Considerations for 3-D Modeling Function

  • Drawings sometimes require more dimensions than models

    • Geometric relations imbedded in a model must be pointed out explicitly on a drawing

  • Drawings with dimensions for manufacturing done at end of design process

Considerations for 3 d modeling cont d
Considerations for 3-D Modeling (cont’d.) Function

  • Software points out when drawing underdimensioned or overdimensioned

    • If underdimensioned, grab entities and move them

    • If overdimensioned, delete a dimension or geometric constraint

Dimensions for the plate example
Dimensions for the Plate Example Function

FIGURE 15.35. A deadbolt lock plate.

Dimensions for the plate example cont d
Dimensions for the Plate Example (cont’d.) Function

FIGURE 15.36. Plate dimensions.

Fundamental rules for dimensioning1
Fundamental Rules for Dimensioning Function

  • Found in ASME Y14.5M-1994 standards for Dimensioning and Tolerancing

  • Examples

    • All dimensions and tolerances apply in a free state condition

    • Unless otherwise specified, all geometric tolerances apply for full depth, length, and width of the feature

Summary Function

  • Provided an introduction to dimensioning

  • Discussed how all dimensions have a tolerance and how tolerances are important for the function of designs

  • Discussed specific standards or rules that must be followed whether dimensioning in inches or millimeters

Summary cont d
Summary (cont’d.) Function

  • Covered techniques for dimensioning different features, such as standard parts, machined holes, and notes