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Overview of Secondary Special Education. EDUC 4580/MEDUC 6580. Six Values to Guide Teaching. Envisioning Great Expectations Enhancing Positive Contributions Building on Strengths Acting on Choices Expanding Relationships Ensuring Full Citizenship. History of Discrimination.

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Overview of Secondary Special Education

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Overview of secondary special education l.jpg

Overview of Secondary Special Education

EDUC 4580/MEDUC 6580


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Six Values to Guide Teaching

  • Envisioning Great Expectations

  • Enhancing Positive Contributions

  • Building on Strengths

  • Acting on Choices

  • Expanding Relationships

  • Ensuring Full Citizenship


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History of Discrimination

Cases Prior to IDEA that Prohibited Discrimination

  • Separate Is Not EqualBrown v. Board of Education (1954)

  • Free Appropriate Public EducationPennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972) Applied to students with mental retardation; FAPE, LRE, periodic review, procedural due processMills v. Washington, DC, Board of Education (1972) Extended PARC to all students with disabilities.Honig v. Doe (1988) Students with disabilities cannot be excluded for disability-related behaviors from school.Timothy W. v. Rochester School District (1989) FAPE must be provided to all children with disabilities.

  • Nondiscriminatory AssessmentDiana v. State Board of Education(1970) Assessment must be in the student’s native language.Larry P. v. Riles (1981) IQ tests cannot be used as sole basis for placement into special education.


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IDEA Categories

  • Specific learning disabilities

  • Emotional disturbance

  • Mental retardation

  • Autism

  • Other health impairments

  • Orthopedic impairments

  • Traumatic brain injury

  • Speech or language impairments

  • Hearing impairments, including deafness

  • Visual impairments, including blindness

  • Deaf-blindness

  • Multiple disabilities

  • Developmental delays (for children aged 3-9)


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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

Originally Called - Education of All Handicapped Students Act of 1975 (PL 94-142)

  • Six Principles of IDEA (PL 105-17)

    • Least restrictive environment

    • Appropriate education

    • Procedural due process

    • Parent and student participation

    • Nondiscriminatory evaluation

    • Zero reject

  • Five Provisions of IDEA

    • IEP

    • LRE

    • Nondiscriminatory testing

    • Confidentiality

    • Procedural due process


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Components of an IEP

  • A statement of the child’s present levels of performance.

  • A statement of measurable annual goals, including benchmarks or short-term objectives.

  • A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided to the child.

  • An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class or other school-related settings.

  • A statement of any individual modifications in the administration of State or district-wide assessments of student achievement.

  • A projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications.

  • A statement of how the child’s progress will be measured and how the parents will be informed.

  • Beginning at age 14 (or younger if appropriate) a statement of the transitions services needed.


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Cascade of Services

  • Level I- general education classroom

  • Level II- general education plus supplemental services

  • Level III- part-time special class

  • Level IV- full-time special class

  • Level V- special stations

  • Level VI- homebound

  • Level VII- hospital/in-patient programs


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Other Federal Laws

  • Entitlements and ServicesRehabilitation Act – 1973

    • Section 503 –affirmative action plans to recruit, train, and hire individuals with disabilities, and provide reasonable accommodations to individuals with disabilities

    • Section 504 – equal access to programs, jobs, and housing

    • Technology-Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Act (Tech Act) – 1988

  • Prohibition of Discrimination

    • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act – 1975

    • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – 1990 – expands Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to include all public and private employers, services, and facilities.


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Factors Undermining the Success of Secondary Special Education

  • Limited recognition of the need for services at this level.

  • The inflexible structure of regular secondary education

  • Curricular emphasis of regular secondary education.

  • Inadequate teacher preparation.

  • Lack of theoretical and empirical supportLack of appropriate materials


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Goals of Secondary Special Education (Deshler, Schumaker, & Lenz, 1984)

  • To be placed in the least restrictive environment.

  • To earn a high school diploma, for which they may have to pass minimum competency exams.

  • To develop independent learning skills that will enable them to acquire information in new environments

  • To demonstrate social competence so that they will be able to function in employment and other community settings

  • To prepare for a career.


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