Cooking hygiene
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Cooking hygiene. 4 IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN COOKING HYGIENE. PERSONAL HYGIENE HYGIENE IN SITE OF COOKING HYGIENE IN UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT HYGIENE IN FOOD. COOKING HYGIENE . PERSONAL. COOKING SITE. CLEAN BODY AND HAIR CLEAN HANDS- SHORT AND CLEAN FINGER NAILS CLEAN CLOTHE AVOID:

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Cooking hygiene

Cooking hygiene


4 important aspects in cooking hygiene

4 IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN COOKING HYGIENE

  • PERSONAL HYGIENE

  • HYGIENE IN SITE OF COOKING

  • HYGIENE IN UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT

  • HYGIENE IN FOOD


Cooking hygiene1

COOKING HYGIENE

PERSONAL

COOKING SITE

  • CLEAN BODY AND HAIR

  • CLEAN HANDS- SHORT AND CLEAN FINGER NAILS

  • CLEAN CLOTHE

  • AVOID:

    SNEEZING,COUGHING,TOUCHING

    HAIR,MOUTH,NOSE,EARS.

    OUR MICROBES CAN PASS DOWN TO OTHERS

  • CLEAN FLOOR.

  • ALL TRASH IN THE TRASH CAN

  • T. CAN MUST BE FAR FROM FOOD PREPARATION SITE.

  • CLEANWALLS,CORNERS, CEILINGS (spider webs and insects nests)


Cooking hygiene2

COOKING HYGIENE

UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT

FOOD

  • WASH THEM AFTER USED

  • DON’T LEAVE THEM DIRTY FOR A LONG TIME- FLIES

  • RAGS AND CLOTHS

  • PUT AWAY UTENSILS LAYING DOWNWARD OR COVER THEM WITH CLOTH.

  • MAKE EMPHASIS IN WASHING THROUGHLY WITH HOT WATER THE SCRUB,CUTTING BOARD AND SMASHING STONE.

  • VEGETABLES ,FRUITS AND GRAINS NEED TO BE WASHED.

  • SOMETIMES SOAP NEEDS TO BE USED.

  • SOME FOOD NEED MORE TIME,PARTS NEED TO BE WASHED SEPARATE;SPINACH,LETTUCE, CABBAGE

  • SOME SHOULD BE LEFT IN SALT AND WATER FOR 5 MIN. TO ELIMINATE INSECTS AND MICRORGANISMS.


Ways of cooking

WAYS OF COOKING

BOILING

FRYING

  • The less quantity of water should be used to avoid loosing viamins B and C.

  • That same water should be used for soups, sauces or rice to used dissolved vita.

  • Destroys microorganisms in food.

  • Oil must be very hot.

  • When food is taken out of frying pan it should be placed on paper towels so it absorbs excess of oil.

    STIR FRYING

    Little oil is used and food is stired constantly at a variable temperature.


Cooking hygiene

GRILLING

BAKING

  • Here the food is in direct contact with fire.

  • Best done outdoors.

  • The hard outer coat formed stops the nutritious substances from coming out.

  • Usually used on thin cuts.

  • The hot air in the oven is transmitted to the food.

  • The hard outside coat stops the nutritious substances from coming out.

  • If the food needs more time in oven then it should be covered


Cooking hygiene

STEWING

STEAMING

  • MEATS AND VEGETABLES ARE COOKED IN A JUICY WAY IN MEDIUM OR LOW TEMPERATURE. SMALL AMOUNT OR NO OIL IS ADDED.

  • VERY POPULAR IN THE ORIENTAL COUNTRIES. FOOD IN A RECIPIENT IS COOKED IN ANOTHER RECIPIENT WITH HOT WATER. THE FOOD IS COOKED WITH THE STEAM.

  • Steaming pot.


Investigation on food spoilage

INVESTIGATION ON FOOD SPOILAGE

THEMES: FERMENTATION --YEAST,MOLD,BACTERIA

PUTREFACTION

RANCIDITY

  • DEFINITIONS

  • INFORMATION

  • 3 PICTURES OF EACH EXCEPT RANCIDITY.

  • PICTURES IN EACH PAGE OF INFORMATION

  • 6 SLIDES

  • FRONT PAGE 20 PTS.


Molds microrganisms

MOLDS -MICRORGANISMS


Bacteria microorganisms

BACTERIA . MICROORGANISMS


Food spoilage

FOOD SPOILAGE

FERMENTATION, PUTREFACTION, AND RANCIDITY


Cooking hygiene

  • Fermentation is the convertion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol.Yeasts,molds and bacteria are types of fermentation.

  • Yeasts are microscopic fungi found in the air ,soil, and of surface of fruit.Some tolerate high acidity ,salt and sugar concentration and can grow without presence of oxygen.

  • There are 3 types of yeasts:

  • BENEFICIAL YEAST

  • SPOILAGE YEAST

  • PATHOGENIC YEAST –causes diseases.

    Yeast can be true – metabolizes sugar producing alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. False yeast grows as a dry film on food surface such as on pickle. False occurs in foods with high sugar or acid environment.


Molds

MOLDS

  • Are microscopic fungi .They grow in tiny spores that float in the air .When spores fall into a piece of damp food then it grows into mold. There are thousands known species of molds.

  • They grow on dead organic matter everywhere in nature and their presence is only visible when mold colonies grow.

  • BACTERIA: Are microscopic organisms round, spiral,or rod shaped that cause spoilage in food . Bacteria generally prefer low acid foods like vegetables and meats.

  • It grows in warmth and in moisture.

molds

bacteria


Putrefaction

PUTREFACTION

  • Is the process in which organic material is broken down into simpler forms of matter –poisonous substances , with the formation of foul smelling and tasting products. It is caused by bacteria ,fungi,oxygen and moisture.

  • Enzymes are chemical substances that exist in the majority of the plants . In the course of certain period of time they can cause changes that spoil the food.


Rancidity

RANCIDITY

  • Is the chemical decomposition of fats,oils,and other lipids. Oxygen molecules interact with the structure of food in a way that can change the odor,taste,and its safety for consumption.

  • There are three types of rancidity:

  • Microbial rancidity,hydrolyticrancidity,and oxidative rancidity.


Food preservation

FOOD PRESERVATION

Advantages:

Extends the life of food

Maintains as much as possible nutritional quality.

Avoids growth of unwanted micro-organisms

SALTING

Food is preserved with salt. Salt inhibits the growth of microorganisms by taking out water of cells through osmosis. Most bacteria,fungi,and other pathogenic organisms can’t survive in a highly salted environment.

One of the oldest methods for preserving food.

DRY SALTING : meat or fish are buried in salt.

BRINE-CURING : Meat is put in strong salt water.


Sugaring

SUGARING

  • Requires food to be dehydrated and then to be packed with sugar or liquids containing high amount of sugar such as honey or molasses.

  • Sugar inhibits bacterial growth


Pickling

PICKLING

  • Can be done in vinegar ,a strong acid in which few bacteria can survive.

  • It can also be done in a salt brine to encourage fermentation.Here the growth of good bacteria makes food less vulnerable to bad spoilage –causing bacteria.


Honduran pickle

HONDURAN PICKLE

  • 1 glass jar –big 2 kitchen cloths boiling pots

  • 3 medium size onions

  • 1 garlic clove 1 carrot ¼ coliflower 1 big plastic bowl

  • ¾ bottle of vinegar apron

    ½ bag of purified water

    Salt, cummins,sugar

    Sour orange

    Raw Jalapeño peppers (optional)

  • THE GLASS JAR MUST BE WASHED THROUGHLY AND BOILING WATER MUST BE POURED IN IT.

  • Boil kitchen cloths.


Pickling factors

Pickling factors

  • Jars ,utensils and kitchen cloths should be boiled and dried.

  • Vegetables need to be very clean and cut in desired size.

  • A teaspoon of sugar can be added to balance the acid taste.

  • If the vinegar is too strong it can be diluted in a small portion of water.

  • Each vegetable needs to be placed in boiling water for a certain time which differs according to the consistency of the vegetable.


Fruit preservation

FRUIT PRESERVATION

  • JELLY

  • MARMALADE

  • SYRUP

  • JAM


Jelly

JELLY

  • Preservation done by boiling the juice of the fruit and sugar until it has a semisolid consistency.

  • PROCEDURE:

  • Shredded or cut fruits. Measure them in cups.

  • Boil them in double quantity of water

  • Sieve this juice .

  • Measure it in cups and the same amount of sugar cups will be added.

  • Put it in the stove and do not stir it.

  • Remove foam with a spoon as it appears.

  • Cook it until a ball is formed when jelly is dropped in a cup of water.

  • Pour it hot in a sterilized jar up to the top and place a thin cloth on top for 24 hours.Then put the lid.


Marmalade

MARMALADE

  • MARMALADE : Thick preserve made with citrus fruits that are usually shredded.

  • PROCEDURE:

  • Shred , cut or blend fruit.

  • Cook it in very small quantity of water at low temperature.Sieve it .

  • Measure the fruit in cups and place it in a pan with the same amount of sugar.

  • Cook it at medium heat until it forms a ball when marmalade is placed in a cup of water.

  • Remove foam with a spoon at all times.

  • Pour it hot in a sterilized jar up to the top and place a thin cloth on top for 24 hours. Then put the lid.


Syrup

SYRUP

For a very fluid consistency boil 2 cups water and 1 of sugar.

For a normal consistency boil 1 cup of water and 1 of sugar.

For a thick consistency boil 1 cup of water and 2 of sugar.

  • If the fruit is small do not cut it. If big ,you can halve it,slice it or cut it in big cubes.

  • Add fruit to syrup that has boiled for ten minutes and cook it according to chart.

  • Place the fruit in a jar and fill it up with the syrup until all the

    fruit is covered.

    Place thin cloth on top and after 24 hours put on the lid.


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