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TASFAA New Aid Officer’s Workshop May 18, 2010 Lyn Wheeler Kinyon, Assistant Director THECB, Grants and Special Programs [email protected] Need Analysis. Foundation of Our Profession. Access and choice are the cornerstones of the financial aid profession

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Need analysis

TASFAA New Aid Officer’s Workshop

May 18, 2010

Lyn Wheeler Kinyon, Assistant Director

THECB, Grants and Special Programs

[email protected]

Need Analysis


Foundation of our profession

Foundation of Our Profession

  • Access and choice are the cornerstones of the financial aid profession

  • How we define financial need through the process of need analysis determines whether or not, and to what extent, a student has access and choice


Expert knowledge is essential

Expert Knowledge is Essential

  • Provide effective and proficient counseling to students and parents

  • Make effective and appropriate professional judgment decisions

  • Provide useful input to affect positive change to the current system


Basic principles of need analysis

Basic Principles of Need Analysis

  • The family has the primary responsibility to pay for educational costs

  • Students and parents are expected to contribute to the extent they are able

  • The family should be accepted in its present financial condition

  • Families should be evaluated equitably and in a consistent manner


Definition of need analysis

Definition of Need Analysis

  • Need Analysis is the method by which we measure the amount of assistance a student will require to meet his/her educational costs

  • Elements of need analysis:

    • Cost of Attendance (COA) - the amount it will cost a student to attend an institution during a period of enrollment

    • Expected Family Contribution (EFC) - the family’s ability to contribute toward the cost of attendance


Cost of attendance coa

Cost of Attendance (COA)

  • COA’s should be:

    • Realistic - providing students with an accurate projection of reasonable educational costs

    • Adequate - allowing a student to live at a moderate level

    • Developed in a systematic way

    • Applied consistently

    • Documented


Coa components

COA Components

  • COA components are defined by law

    • Standard or basic components - included in each COA

    • Additional components - can be added to the standard or basic COA for students who qualify for the additional allowance


Standard or basic components

Standard or Basic Components

  • Tuition and Fees

    • Tuition – the actual or average tuition normally assessed students carrying the same workload

    • Fees – the required fees for all students or broad categories of students (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, etc.)

  • Room and Board

    • Students without dependents residing with parents

    • Students residing off-campus

    • Students without dependents residing in campus housing – standard amount normally assessed most residents

  • Books/Supplies

  • Miscellaneous/Personal

  • Transportation


Additional components

Additional Components

  • Dependent care allowance

  • Disability-related allowance

  • Cooperative education allowance

  • Study abroad allowance

  • Educational loan fee allowance

  • Cost of first professional credential


Coa categories

COA Categories

  • Enrollment categories

    • Full-time, part-time, less than half-time

    • In-state, out-of-state, in-district, out-of-district

    • Undergraduate, graduate

  • Room and board categories

    • On campus, off campus, living with parent

  • Other - incarcerated students, study abroad programs, correspondence study programs


Fixed and variable expenses

Fixed and Variable Expenses

  • Fixed Expenses – set by the institution

    • Tuition and fees

    • On-campus room and board

  • Variable Expenses – not set by the institution

    • Books and supplies

    • Off-campus room and board

    • Transportation, dependent care, etc.


Collecting data for expense determination

Collecting Data for Expense Determination

  • Published institutional sources

  • Expense surveys

    • Personal interviews

    • Student budget questionnaires

    • Student expense diaries

    • Local community sources

    • Local and national publications


Expected family contribution efc

Expected Family Contribution (EFC)

  • The EFC is the measure of the student’s and his/her family’s ability to contribute to the cost of the student’s education

  • As specified by law, the EFC is determined through a calculation called Federal Methodology (FM)


Collecting data for efc determination

Collecting Data for EFC Determination

  • The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is used to collect the data needed for the FM calculation

  • Data reported on the FAFSA includes:

    • Information to determine dependency status

    • Household size and number in college

    • Taxable income, untaxed income, and assets

    • Type of tax return filed and income tax paid

    • Age of the older parent or independent student

    • Number of wage earners

    • State of legal residence

    • Child support paid


Federal methodology fm

Federal Methodology (FM)

  • In general, FM assesses:

    • The family structure

    • The family’s resources needed for the basic sustenance needs of the family members – food, clothing, and shelter

    • The family’s resources needed for other non-discretionary expenses – SS tax (FICA), federal and state tax, other taxes, etc.

    • The family’s available resources for discretionary spending – entertainment, higher education, etc.

    • The portion of the family’s discretionary resources available to contribute toward the expense of a higher education


Federal methodology fm1

Federal Methodology (FM)

  • Three FM Formulas

    • Formula A - dependent student and parent

    • Formula B - independent student (and spouse) without dependents (other than a spouse)

    • Formula C - independent student (and spouse)

      with dependents (other than a spouse)

  • Three FM Formula Variations

    • Regular

    • Simplified

    • Automatic Zero EFC


  • Dependent vs independent

    Dependent vs.Independent

    • Dependent EFC Formula

      • Parents’ ability to contribute to educational expenses (PC)

      • Student’s ability to contribute to educational expenses (SC)

  • Independent EFC Formula

    • Student’s (and spouse’s if applicable) ability to contribute to educational expenses (SC)

    • Parents’ ability to contribute is not assessed


  • Independent student definition

    Independent Student Definition

    • At least age 24 as of Jan.1 of award year

    • Veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces or currently serving on active duty for purposes other than training

    • Master’s or Doctoral student

    • Legally married

    • Orphan or ward of the court

    • Legal dependents other than a spouse

    • Emancipated minor

    • Court determined legal guardianship

    • Homeless or unaccompanied youth

    • Professional judgment


    Definition of parent

    Definition of Parent

    • The definition of parent includes:

      • A biological parent

      • An adoptive parent

      • A step-parent (if married to the biological parent)

  • The definition of parent does not include:

    • A legal guardian

    • A step-parent (no longer married to biological parent)

    • A grandparent, aunt, or uncle

    • A foster parent


  • Fm s approach to data

    FM’s Approach to Data

    • Base year data for income (2009 is base year for the 2010-11 award year)

      • verifiable information is available

      • data for a full, complete calendar year

  • Other data is as of the date of application or for the upcoming application period

    • assets and marital status

    • family size and number in college

  • Formula tables establish and use allowances against income and assets in the calculation


  • Treatment of income

    Treatment of Income

    • Total Income

      Taxable Income

      (AGI or earnings from work)

      +Untaxed Income and Benefits(child support rec’d, living allowances, etc.)

      ̶Excludable Income

      (child support paid, taxable financial aid, etc.)

      =Total Income


    Treatment of income cont d

    Treatment of Income (cont’d)

    • Available Income - portion of the yearly total income available for discretionary spending

      Total Income

      ̶ Total Allowances

      (U.S. Income Tax Paid, State and Other Taxes, Social Security Tax, Income Protection Allowance, and Employment Expense Allowance)

      _____________________________________________

      =Available Income


    Treatment of assets

    Treatment of Assets

    • Contribution from Assets – excluding the family’s primary residence

      Cash, Savings, and Checking Accounts

      +Net Worth of Business or Investment Farm

      (adjusted percentage of value less debt)

      +Net worth of Other Real Estateor Investment

      (value less debt)

      _____________________________________________

      =Asset Net Worth


    Assets cont d

    Assets (cont’d)

    • Contribution from Assets

      Asset Net Worth

      ̶Education Savings and Asset Protection Allowance

      _____________________________________

      =Discretionary Net Worth

      xAppropriate Conversion Rate

      _____________________________________

      =Contribution from Assets


    Student or parent contribution

    Student or Parent Contribution

    • Student or Parent Contribution

      Available Income

      +Contribution from Assets

      ______________________________________

      =Adjusted Available Income (AAI)

      xAppropriate Taxation Rate

      ________________________________

      =Gross Student Contribution (SC)

      or

      Gross Parent Contribution (PC)


    Student parent contribution cont d

    Student/Parent Contribution (cont’d)

    • Parent Contribution (Dependent)

      Gross Parent Contribution (PC)

      ÷# in College (excluding parents)

      _______________________________

      Net Parent Contribution (PC)

    • Student Contribution (Independent)

      Gross Student Contribution (SC)

      ÷# in College

      _______________________________

      Net Student Contribution (SC)


    Total estimated family contribution efc

    Total Estimated Family Contribution (EFC)

    • Dependent EFC

      Parent Contribution (PC)

      +Student Contribution (SC)

      _____________________________________

      =Dependent Student EFC

    • Independent EFC

      Student Contribution (SC)

      _____________________________________

      =Independent Student EFC


    Simplified formula variation

    Simplified Formula Variation

    Dependent Applicant Qualifications for the Simplified Formula:

    Parents’ base year AGI/Earnings < $50,000

    AND

     Parents were not required to file an IRS Form 1040, or

    the parent is a dislocated worker, or anyone counted

    in the parents’ household size received a federal means-tested benefit program in the prior year (base year) or prior, prior year (SSI, food stamps, free or reduced price school lunches, TANF, or WIC)


    Simplified formula con t

    Simplified Formula (Con’t)

    Independent Applicant Qualifications for the Simplified Formula:

    • Student/Spouse base year AGI/Earnings < $50,000

      AND

    • Student/spouse were not required to file an IRS Form 1040, or the student (or spouse) is a dislocated worker, or anyone counted in the student’s household size received a federal means-tested benefit program during the prior year (base year) or prior, prior year (SSI, food stamps, free or reduced price school lunches, TANF, or WIC)


    Automatic zero efc variation

    Automatic Zero EFC Variation

    Dependent Applicant Qualifications for Automatic Zero EFC:

    • Parents’ base year AGI/Earnings <= $30,000

      AND

    • Parents were not required to file an IRS Form 1040, or the parent is a dislocated worker, or anyone counted in the household size received a federal means-tested benefit during the prior year (base year) or prior, prior year (SSI, food stamps, free or reduced price school lunches, TANF, or WIC)


    Automatic zero efc con t

    Automatic Zero EFC (Con’t)

    Independent Applicant Qualifications for Automatic Zero EFC:

    • Student/Spouse base year AGI/earnings <= $30,000

      AND

    • Student/Spouse were not required to file an IRS Form 1040, or the student (or spouse) is a dislocated worker, or anyone counted in the household size received a federal means-tested benefit during the prior year (base year or prior, prior year (SSI, food stamps, free or reduced price school lunches, TANF, or WIC)

    • Not applicable for independent students without dependents other than a spouse


    Initial and alternate efc s

    Initial and Alternate EFC’s

    • Initial EFC on the ISIR is for 9 months

    • Alternate EFC’s can be found on the ISIR for enrollment periods other than 9 months

      • Enrollment periods < 9 months - both the SC and the PC are adjusted

      • Enrollment periods > 9 months - no adjustment to the SC; the PC is adjusted

  • Alternate or prorated EFC’s cannot be used to determine Federal Pell Grant eligibility


  • Questions thoughts comments

    Questions???Thoughts???Comments???


    Fm hand calculation case studies

    FM Hand Calculation Case Studies

    Trainer Johnny N. Thalocker

    (dependent with divorced parents and a stepparent)

    Coach Judy B. Sunburned

    (single independent with no dependents)


    Need analysis

    Case Study One – Johnny (dependent student)

    Johnny is a 21 year old undergraduate student. His parents are divorced and his mother is re-married. He lives with his mother, his stepfather, and his two younger sisters in New York City.

    His mother, Sue, is 43, and his step-father, Bill, is 42. Together, they filed a 1040 for 2009, reporting an AGI of $75,790, a $1,500 education tax credit, and a tax liability of $7,696. They claimed Johnny as their only exemption other than themselves.

    Sue earned wages of $27,560 in 2009. She also made $2,250 in payments to a tax deferred pension plan, and receives $750 a month in child support for Johnny’s two sisters. Bill is self-employed and earned $47,300 of which $46,000 was in wages and $1,300 was in business income. His business is valued at $236,000 with a $158,000 debt against it. Sue and Bill also have $9,600 in stocks and $11,333 in savings.

    Johnny had earnings of $700 in 2009 from his Work-Study job. He filed a 1040EZ and had no income tax liability. He has no savings or assets.


    Need analysis

    Case Study Two – Judy (independent student)

    Judy is a 50 year old single student with no dependents. She lives in the District of Columbia where she has lived all of her life. She works as a training camp coach in the summer and an office assistant in the fall and spring semesters while attending school full-time at a local university.

    Judy earned $11,176 through both of her jobs in 2009. She filed an IRS Form 1040A for the 2009 tax year reporting an adjusted gross income of $11,597, taxable interest income in the amount of $421, an education tax credit of $400, and an income tax liability of $658. She has $4,000 in a money market account and no other savings or investments. Judy received no untaxed income in 2009.


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