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Providing On-going Support for STEM Teachers. Joan D. Pasley Horizon Research, Inc. Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Recommendations for schools and districts: Enhance the capacity of K-12 teachers.

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Providing on going support for stem teachers

Providing On-going Support for STEM Teachers

Joan D. Pasley

Horizon Research, Inc.


Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

Recommendations for schools and districts:

  • Enhance the capacity of K-12 teachers.

  • Create school conditions that appear to support student achievement.


Purpose of this session
Purpose of this Session Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

  • What do we know about effective professional development to enhance the capacity of K-12 STEMteachers?

  • What “conditions” support effective STEM teaching and learning?


Msp knowledge management and dissemination project
MSP Knowledge Management and Dissemination Project Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

Goal: To synthesize knowledge generated through the Math and Science Partnerships and integrate it into the broader knowledge base for education reform

  • Deepening Teacher Content Knowledge

  • Teachers as Intellectual Leaders

  • Involvement of STEM faculty

  • Professional Learning Communities




How many of you discussed the following
How many of you discussed the following? you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

  • On-going, sustains focus over time

  • Content-focused

  • Models effective practice, including active learning experiences

  • Provides opportunities for teachers to apply what they are learning to their own practice

  • Engages teachers in communities of learners


What do we know
What do we know? you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

  • Professional development design and implementation is complex, with many decisions to make.

  • Decisions are interrelated.

  • Our eyes are always bigger than our stomachs – we always want to do more in professional development than we are able to do.


Simplified logic model for professional development
Simplified Logic Model for you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effectiveProfessional Development

Professional

Development

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Teacher

Knowledge

and Skills


Teacher content knowledge matters
Teacher content knowledge matters… you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Professional

Development

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Teacher

Content

Knowledge

  • For teaching practice:

  • Selecting content to emphasize

  • Selecting instructional strategies and sequence

  • Selecting assessment tasks

  • Implementing curriculum materials


Teacher content knowledge matters1
Teacher content knowledge matters… you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Professional

Development

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Teacher

Content

Knowledge

Students of teachers with stronger content knowledge have higher achievement scores than other students, in particular on measures of conceptual understanding.


So if tck matters
So if TCK matters… you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

What do we know about deepening teacher content knowledge?


Facets of teacher content knowledge
Facets of you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effectiveTeacher Content Knowledge

  • Disciplinary content knowledge

  • Pedagogical content knowledge

  • Ways of knowing content


Msp kmd review of research
MSP KMD Review of Research you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Identified more than 1000 “studies” on PD to deepen teacher content-related knowledge


Msp kmd review of research1
MSP KMD Review of Research you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

However, approximately 90% of the studies were screened out because:

They were advocacy or opinion pieces, not research, and/or

They were studies of pre-service teachers only, and/or

They did not include a measure (quantitative or qualitative) of teacher content knowledge.


Msp kmd review of research2
MSP KMD Review of Research you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Applied standards of evidence to 65 studies of professional development, those that were not simply opinion or advocacy pieces and actually measured teacher content knowledge.


Based on the evidence an effective pd program
Based on the Evidence: you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effectiveAn Effective PD Program…

  • Duration: Multi-year, ongoing, with substantial number of contact hours

  • Collective participation: Involves all teachers within each school

  • Job-embedded with active learning opportunities, with evaluation/assessment feedback.

  • Focus on content, student-learning, and instruction:

    • Disciplinary content

    • How students learn

    • Specific teaching practices


  • Research studies you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effectivetypically looked at the effectiveness of multiple professional development elements as a set, so we don’t know how much particular components of an intervention contributed to the gains.


An emerging consensus effective pd
An Emerging Consensus Effective PD: you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

  • Focuses on content knowledge and how students learn content

  • Involves a substantial number of hours

  • Sustains focus over time

  • Models effective practice, including active learning experiences

  • Engages teachers in communities of learning

  • Involves active participation of school leaders


Recent study
Recent Study you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

A randomized controlled trial tested characteristics of PD, including…

  • Substantial number of contact hours over a full-year duration, including summer institutes, academic year seminars and in-school coaching

  • Focus on developing teachers’ mathematics content and pedagogical content knowledge

  • Collective participation of teachers in a school


The study findings indicated no you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effectivestatistically significant impact on student achievement after two years.


What research tells us
What research tells us you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

  • Available research points to some elements of effective PD, but does not provide sufficient guidance about how to design and implement PD for particular purposes in particular kinds of situations.


Filling the gap
Filling the gap you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

  • “Sensible propositions” can provide additional guidance and serve as hypotheses for research.

  • MSP-KMD project developed a methodology for collecting and vetting practice-based insights.


Disciplinary content knowledge
Disciplinary Content Knowledge you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Research suggests that:

  • teachers can deepen their understanding of disciplinary content by working on challenging problems at an advanced level.


Disciplinary content knowledge1
Disciplinary Content Knowledge you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Expert practitioners caution that:

  • Teachers need to see the connection between how they are encountering the content at an advanced level, and how the topic appears in the grade-level content.


Disciplinary content knowledge2
Disciplinary Content Knowledge you’ve offered or attended. What were the factors that made the experience effective

Expert practitioners caution that:

  • Developing deep conceptual understanding takes time; teachers need multiple opportunities to explore new ideas.



Expert practitioners highlight the need to: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • Be careful that the content doesn’t get lost. Teachers need to learn the content AND learn how the activities are intended to help students develop their understanding.


Expert practitioners highlight the need to: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • Go beyond modeling effective pedagogy; professional development should allow time for facilitators to explicitly discuss the pedagogy that was modeled.


Research suggests that: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • teachers be encouraged to implement student instructional materials as intended.


Lesson understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.Quality is Associated with Adherence to District-Designated Materials

Adherence

39


Pedagogical content knowledge
Pedagogical Content Knowledge understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

Research suggests that:

  • examining student work can help teachers to understand student thinking.


Expert practitioners suggest: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • Not any student work will do; student work samples should be rich enough to illustrate their thinking and include the full range of student ideas about the mathematics.


Expert practitioners highlight the need understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.for:

  • Teachers to first analyze a carefully crafted set of student work before analyzing their own students' work.

  • Analysis of student work to focus on what students understand, not just what they do not understand.


  • Research suggests understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.the need for school-based and/or job-embedded professional development for STEM teachers.


  • Specifically, understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.participation in PLCs has been linked to increased teacher confidence and positive changes in teachers’ instructional practices.


Expert practitioners suggest: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • STEM PLCs should not be expected to address all of the needs for teachers’ continuing education.


Expert practitioners suggest: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • STEM PLCs may be more amenable to some professional development purposes than others.


Expert practitioners suggest: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • Skilled facilitation is important to the success of STEM PLCs.


Expert practitioners suggest: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • Protocols and tools can increase the likelihood that a STEM PLC will be successful.


Expert practitioners suggest: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

  • High quality PD materials save time and effort in designing PD, and provide scaffolding for novice PD providers.


  • Expert practitioners (and common sense) highlight: understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.

    • the need to select approaches that fit your particular context

    • the fact that no design will work without good implementation


Simplified logic model for professional development1
Simplified Logic Model for understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.Professional Development

Policies Aligned with the Vision

Professional

Development

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Teacher

Knowledge

and Skills

Appropriate Instructional Materials

Principal Support


  • As individuals, complete the reflection form considering understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.(1) whether the system in a designated district reflects each of the listed attributes and (2) how easy/difficult the attribute would be to fix if not in place.

  • Discuss at your table


Lessons from the understanding of disciplinary content and their pedagogical content knowledge by experiencing the student materials as learners.MSP Case Studies



Designing feasible effective pd
Designing feasible and likely to be effective with the teachers in the particular context. Feasible, Effective PD

  • Choose interventions that both address perceived needs explicitly and are likely to contribute to long-term improvements by focusing on more entrenched issues.

  • Recognize the pros and cons when considering incentives for teacher participation in professional development.

  • Have a plan for addressing varying levels of teacher knowledge and skills.

  • Provide support for application of enhanced teacher content knowledge to the classroom.



Engaging key stakeholders
Engaging whose support is important for efforts to deepen teacher content knowledge. Key Stakeholders

  • Identify the stakeholders whose understanding and support will be crucial for the work to be sustained.

  • Involve stakeholders in activities that help develop a shared vision around deepening teacher content knowledge.

  • Anticipate that changes in stakeholders may create new opportunities and/or barriers to sustainability.



Aligning key policies
Aligning the vision underlying the reform efforts.Key Policies

  • Identify the most pertinent and influential policies and align interventions with those policies.

  • Work to align institutional policies with the program vision.

  • Help teachers deal with unaligned policies.


Data driven decision making
Data-Driven Decision-making the vision underlying the reform efforts.

  • Use data to inform decisions about selecting, implementing, and adapting interventions.

  • Use data to ensure an acceptable level of quality during implementation and scale-up, and to encourage support for system change.



Developing capacity and infrastructure
Developing Capacity teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical skills. and Infrastructure

  • Consider from the get-go how to develop capacity for long-term sustainability.

  • Plan for succession of program leaders.

  • Identify and develop the infrastructure needed for the work to be sustained.


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