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Who Should Control Education: The Common School Era. Colonial Era. Demographics Attitude toward children Education (grammar schooling) Education (college). Drawing of Harvard College, circa 1767. Revolutionary Era. Ideology Faith in reason Natural law (deism) Nationalism.

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colonial era
Colonial Era
  • Demographics
  • Attitude toward children
  • Education (grammar schooling)
  • Education (college)
revolutionary era
Revolutionary Era
  • Ideology
    • Faith in reason
    • Natural law (deism)
    • Nationalism
revolutionary era education
Revolutionary Era Education
  • Jeffersonian ideals
    • Meritocracy
    • Plan for popular education-4 tiers
    • His legacy
common school era
Common School Era
  • Demographics
  • Ideology
common school movement
Common School Movement
  • School structure
  • Teaching
  • Overarching goals: moral training, discipline, patriotism, mutual understanding, formal equality, and cultural assimilation
  • (development of high schools)
questions for discussion
Questions for Discussion
  • By which secondary source-Kaestle or Bowles and Gintis-are you persuaded?
  • What do you think of the arguments for localism or centralization? Where do you stand?
  • What do you think about the notion of the “common school?” What would it look like?
  • Where do you stand: are children property of the state or of their parents? (Kaestle 158-159)
  • What is the hidden curriculum and how is it transmitted to students in today’s schools?
characterization of the era
Characterization of the Era
  • Urbanization
  • Immigration
  • Ideology
  • Education
general characterization of progressive education
General Characterization of Progressive Education
  • Built on the “new” psychology
  • Traditional classical curriculum should be replaced with a varied curriculum
  • Learning should be based on activities not rote memorization
  • Primary aim of schooling is to help solve society’s problems
new educational goals
New Educational Goals
  • Social stability
  • Employable skills
  • Equal educational opportunity
  • Meritocracy
george counts 1889 1974
George Counts (1889-1974)
  • Influenced by Dewey
  • Envisioned a ‘political’ role for teachers
  • Accused of being a communist
  • Critical of Progressive Education
john dewey 1859 1952
John Dewey (1859-1952)
  • The ‘father’ of pedagogical progressivism
  • Disagreed with Counts; believed that schools should produce reformers not reform society directly
dewey s ideas
Dewey’s ideas
  • Schools kill curiosity and social interaction
  • Schools should be laboratories for democracy
  • Education THROUGH the vocations not FOR the vocations
questions for discussion1
Questions for Discussion
  • What do you think the role of the school should be in society? Should they lead or follow?
  • What of the role of the teacher?
  • What do you think of the concept of indoctrination (a la Counts)?
  • Do you have a prescription for achieving the “good” society?
alfred binet
Alfred Binet
  • Paper and pencil test
  • Series of short tasks according to child’s age
  • Related to everyday problems
  • Didn’t rely on learned skills like math or reading
binet s cautions
Binet’s cautions
  • Scores are a practical device; they do not buttress any theory of intellect
  • Scale is a rough empirical guide for identifying learning disabled kids NOT for ranking normal children
  • Low scores shall not be used to mark children as innately incapable
enter lewis terman
Enter Lewis Terman
  • Adopts Binet’s test but alters it to sort, classify, and test all American school children
  • Intelligence Quotient born in 1916
impact of the iq
Impact of the IQ
  • What began as a way to identify individual children with special needs became a means for ordering groups
  • Said to test inherent/innate ability
  • Immigration policy took cues from results
progressive education review
Progressive Education (review)
  • Replace classical curriculum with a varied curriculum based on kids’ interests
  • Learning should be based on activities not rote memorization
  • Schools should help solve society’s problems
  • Seeking social stability, employable skills, and equal educational opportunity
questions for discussion2
Questions for Discussion
  • Should we have a core curriculum? What should it be?
  • What are the merits of a differentiated curriculum?
  • How much differentiation is too much?
language issues does an american have to speak english

Language Issues:Does an American Have to Speak English?

Ingles

Englisch

英語

Inglese

إنجليزي

1930s court cases
1930s Court Cases
  • Salvatieera v. Independent School District (TX), 1930
    • Court Oks separation on the basis of English language handicaps
  • Alvarez v. Lemon Grove School District (CA), 1931
    • classifying Mexicans as Indian
    • School board: separate education best for learning language and assimilation (and gender fears)
    • San Diego court: school board can’t separate ALL kids
1940s court cases
1940s Court Cases
  • Mendez v. Westminster (CA), 1947
    • School board says MA kids happier in separate classrooms/schools
    • Federal District court disagrees (they were separated for wrong reasons: race)
  • Delgado v. Bastrop (TX), 1948
    • Parents continued Salvatierra fight
1970s court cases
1970s Court Cases
  • Cisneros v. Corpus Christi District (TX), 1970
    • Mexican Americans classified as such (brown not white)
  • Lau v. Nichols, 1974
    • Question: equal or equitable treatment required by schools?
    • (critical mass necessary)
    • Made language a civil rights issue
questions for discussion3
Questions for Discussion
  • How do we reconcile American-ness with diversity? (umum and pluribus)
  • How do we reconcile ethnicity with American-ness?
  • What do you make of the relationship between language and citizenship?
  • Is it the school’s role to teach/help maintain culture?
colonial revolutionary common school eras and religion
Colonial/Revolutionary/Common School Eras and Religion
  • Protestants outnumbered other immigrants
  • Jefferson’s Bill for Religious Freedom
  • Demographic changes with increases in Irish Catholic immigration
religion in textbooks
Catholicism

Catholics need the pope while Protestants rely on bible as guide

A danger to the state

Sample texts

Judaism

A religion or a race?

Associated with greed (contrast with Franklin)

College admissions becomes HUGE issue

Religion in Textbooks
court cases
Court cases
  • State v. John Scopes (Monkey Trial) (TN), 1925
    • Evolution v. creationism
    • Science in the classroom
    • Inherit the Wind, 1960
  • Pierce v. Society of Sisters (OR), 1925
    • Compulsory education=public education
    • Anti-Catholic intentions
questions for discussion4
Questions for Discussion
  • How does religion fit in today’s public schools?
  • What do you think of the use of school property for religious purposes?
  • How should science classes be handled (evolution/creationism/ punctuated equilibrium)?
paulo freire
Paulo Freire
  • Worked with rural poor adults
  • Professor, government employee, and community worker
  • Wanted to extend literacy and democracy
highlander folk school miles horton
Highlander Folk School, Miles Horton
  • Founded as adult education center; aim was to build a progressive labor movement
  • Changed focus in 1953 to Civil Rights Movement and voting rights
early desegregation decisions
Early Desegregation Decisions
  • Gaines v. Canada (MO), 1938
  • Sipuel v. Board of Regents (OK), 1948
  • McLaurin v. Board of Regents (OK), 1950
  • Sweatt v. Painter (TX), 1950
the brown decision 1954
The Brown Decision, 1954
  • Briggs v. Elliott (SC), 1950
  • Belton v. Gebhart; Bulah v. Gebhart (DE), 1951
  • Brown v. Board (KS), 1951
  • Davis v. Prince Edward County SB (VA), 1951
  • Bowling v. Sharpe (DC), 1952
brief mississippi history
Brief Mississippi History
  • Black statistics
  • White reaction to Brown decision
  • (SNCC and sit-ins)
  • Summer 1964: Freedom Summer
questions for discussion5
Questions for Discussion
  • What do you make of Freire and SNCC in light of previous authors with regard to the purpose of education?
  • Would working within the system or outside the system be best?
  • Does this influence your opinion on who is “qualified” to teach?
what is black power
What is Black Power
  • The launching of a movement (1966)
  • Carmichael and Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America
black access to higher ed
Black Access to Higher Ed
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Higher Education Act of 1965
  • Campus-based affirmative action
  • Numbers in colleges
curricular changes
Curricular Changes
  • Black Studies
  • Community control
  • Multicultural/Afro-centric Education
questions for discussion6
Questions for Discussion
  • How much control should a community have?
    • Hiring teachers?
    • Curriculum?
    • Educational policy?
  • What is a ‘qualified’ teacher?
questions for discussion7
Questions for Discussion
  • Where do hyphenated Americans (a la Sekhon) fit in today’s discussion?
  • When is it acceptable to use race as an identifying characteristic and when is it not?
questions for discussion8
Questions for Discussion
  • What are the consequences of the way we shape/interpret history?
  • Is there a certain age at which student should be exposed to history as interpretation?
  • How should we teach patriotism in schools? And how should patriotism be defined?
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