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Who Should Control Education: The Common School Era. Colonial Era. Demographics Attitude toward children Education (grammar schooling) Education (college). Drawing of Harvard College, circa 1767. Revolutionary Era. Ideology Faith in reason Natural law (deism) Nationalism.

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Who Should Control Education: The Common School Era

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Who should control education the common school era

Who Should Control Education: The Common School Era

Colonial era

Colonial Era

  • Demographics

  • Attitude toward children

  • Education (grammar schooling)

  • Education (college)

Drawing of harvard college circa 1767

Drawing of Harvard College, circa 1767

Revolutionary era

Revolutionary Era

  • Ideology

    • Faith in reason

    • Natural law (deism)

    • Nationalism

Revolutionary era education

Revolutionary Era Education

  • Jeffersonian ideals

    • Meritocracy

    • Plan for popular education-4 tiers

    • His legacy

Common school era

Common School Era

  • Demographics

  • Ideology

One room school house ks

One Room School House (KS)

One room school house md

One Room School House (MD)

Common school movement

Common School Movement

  • School structure

  • Teaching

  • Overarching goals: moral training, discipline, patriotism, mutual understanding, formal equality, and cultural assimilation

  • (development of high schools)

Questions for discussion

Questions for Discussion

  • By which secondary source-Kaestle or Bowles and Gintis-are you persuaded?

  • What do you think of the arguments for localism or centralization? Where do you stand?

  • What do you think about the notion of the “common school?” What would it look like?

  • Where do you stand: are children property of the state or of their parents? (Kaestle 158-159)

  • What is the hidden curriculum and how is it transmitted to students in today’s schools?

The progressive era i pedagogical progressivism

The Progressive Era I:Pedagogical Progressivism

Characterization of the era

Characterization of the Era

  • Urbanization

  • Immigration

  • Ideology

  • Education

General characterization of progressive education

General Characterization of Progressive Education

  • Built on the “new” psychology

  • Traditional classical curriculum should be replaced with a varied curriculum

  • Learning should be based on activities not rote memorization

  • Primary aim of schooling is to help solve society’s problems

New educational goals

New Educational Goals

  • Social stability

  • Employable skills

  • Equal educational opportunity

  • Meritocracy

George counts 1889 1974

George Counts (1889-1974)

  • Influenced by Dewey

  • Envisioned a ‘political’ role for teachers

  • Accused of being a communist

  • Critical of Progressive Education

John dewey 1859 1952

John Dewey (1859-1952)

  • The ‘father’ of pedagogical progressivism

  • Disagreed with Counts; believed that schools should produce reformers not reform society directly

Dewey s ideas

Dewey’s ideas

  • Schools kill curiosity and social interaction

  • Schools should be laboratories for democracy

  • Education THROUGH the vocations not FOR the vocations

Questions for discussion1

Questions for Discussion

  • What do you think the role of the school should be in society? Should they lead or follow?

  • What of the role of the teacher?

  • What do you think of the concept of indoctrination (a la Counts)?

  • Do you have a prescription for achieving the “good” society?

The progressive era ii administrative progressivism social efficiency

The Progressive Era II: Administrative Progressivism/Social Efficiency

Alfred binet

Alfred Binet

  • Paper and pencil test

  • Series of short tasks according to child’s age

  • Related to everyday problems

  • Didn’t rely on learned skills like math or reading

Binet s cautions

Binet’s cautions

  • Scores are a practical device; they do not buttress any theory of intellect

  • Scale is a rough empirical guide for identifying learning disabled kids NOT for ranking normal children

  • Low scores shall not be used to mark children as innately incapable

Enter lewis terman

Enter Lewis Terman

  • Adopts Binet’s test but alters it to sort, classify, and test all American school children

  • Intelligence Quotient born in 1916

Impact of the iq

Impact of the IQ

  • What began as a way to identify individual children with special needs became a means for ordering groups

  • Said to test inherent/innate ability

  • Immigration policy took cues from results

Progressive education review

Progressive Education (review)

  • Replace classical curriculum with a varied curriculum based on kids’ interests

  • Learning should be based on activities not rote memorization

  • Schools should help solve society’s problems

  • Seeking social stability, employable skills, and equal educational opportunity

Consequences for course taking

Consequences for Course Taking

Questions for discussion2

Questions for Discussion

  • Should we have a core curriculum? What should it be?

  • What are the merits of a differentiated curriculum?

  • How much differentiation is too much?

Language issues does an american have to speak english

Language Issues:Does an American Have to Speak English?






1930s court cases

1930s Court Cases

  • Salvatieera v. Independent School District (TX), 1930

    • Court Oks separation on the basis of English language handicaps

  • Alvarez v. Lemon Grove School District (CA), 1931

    • classifying Mexicans as Indian

    • School board: separate education best for learning language and assimilation (and gender fears)

    • San Diego court: school board can’t separate ALL kids

1940s court cases

1940s Court Cases

  • Mendez v. Westminster (CA), 1947

    • School board says MA kids happier in separate classrooms/schools

    • Federal District court disagrees (they were separated for wrong reasons: race)

  • Delgado v. Bastrop (TX), 1948

    • Parents continued Salvatierra fight

1970s court cases

1970s Court Cases

  • Cisneros v. Corpus Christi District (TX), 1970

    • Mexican Americans classified as such (brown not white)

  • Lau v. Nichols, 1974

    • Question: equal or equitable treatment required by schools?

    • (critical mass necessary)

    • Made language a civil rights issue

Questions for discussion3

Questions for Discussion

  • How do we reconcile American-ness with diversity? (umum and pluribus)

  • How do we reconcile ethnicity with American-ness?

  • What do you make of the relationship between language and citizenship?

  • Is it the school’s role to teach/help maintain culture?

Religion and education

Religion and Education

Colonial revolutionary common school eras and religion

Colonial/Revolutionary/Common School Eras and Religion

  • Protestants outnumbered other immigrants

  • Jefferson’s Bill for Religious Freedom

  • Demographic changes with increases in Irish Catholic immigration

Religion in textbooks


Catholics need the pope while Protestants rely on bible as guide

A danger to the state

Sample texts


A religion or a race?

Associated with greed (contrast with Franklin)

College admissions becomes HUGE issue

Religion in Textbooks

Court cases

Court cases

  • State v. John Scopes (Monkey Trial) (TN), 1925

    • Evolution v. creationism

    • Science in the classroom

    • Inherit the Wind, 1960

  • Pierce v. Society of Sisters (OR), 1925

    • Compulsory education=public education

    • Anti-Catholic intentions

Questions for discussion4

Questions for Discussion

  • How does religion fit in today’s public schools?

  • What do you think of the use of school property for religious purposes?

  • How should science classes be handled (evolution/creationism/ punctuated equilibrium)?

Education for liberation

Education for Liberation

Paulo freire

Paulo Freire

  • Worked with rural poor adults

  • Professor, government employee, and community worker

  • Wanted to extend literacy and democracy

Highlander folk school miles horton

Highlander Folk School, Miles Horton

  • Founded as adult education center; aim was to build a progressive labor movement

  • Changed focus in 1953 to Civil Rights Movement and voting rights

Early desegregation decisions

Early Desegregation Decisions

  • Gaines v. Canada (MO), 1938

  • Sipuel v. Board of Regents (OK), 1948

  • McLaurin v. Board of Regents (OK), 1950

  • Sweatt v. Painter (TX), 1950

The brown decision 1954

The Brown Decision, 1954

  • Briggs v. Elliott (SC), 1950

  • Belton v. Gebhart; Bulah v. Gebhart (DE), 1951

  • Brown v. Board (KS), 1951

  • Davis v. Prince Edward County SB (VA), 1951

  • Bowling v. Sharpe (DC), 1952

Brief mississippi history

Brief Mississippi History

  • Black statistics

  • White reaction to Brown decision

  • (SNCC and sit-ins)

  • Summer 1964: Freedom Summer

Questions for discussion5

Questions for Discussion

  • What do you make of Freire and SNCC in light of previous authors with regard to the purpose of education?

  • Would working within the system or outside the system be best?

  • Does this influence your opinion on who is “qualified” to teach?

Who should control education revisited the 1960s and 1970s

Who Should Control Education Revisited: The 1960s and 1970s

What is black power

What is Black Power

  • The launching of a movement (1966)

  • Carmichael and Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America

Black access to higher ed

Black Access to Higher Ed

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Higher Education Act of 1965

  • Campus-based affirmative action

  • Numbers in colleges

Curricular changes

Curricular Changes

  • Black Studies

  • Community control

  • Multicultural/Afro-centric Education

Questions for discussion6

Questions for Discussion

  • How much control should a community have?

    • Hiring teachers?

    • Curriculum?

    • Educational policy?

  • What is a ‘qualified’ teacher?

Contemporary debates over the curriculum in a multicultural society

Contemporary Debates over the Curriculum in a Multicultural Society

Questions for discussion7

Questions for Discussion

  • Where do hyphenated Americans (a la Sekhon) fit in today’s discussion?

  • When is it acceptable to use race as an identifying characteristic and when is it not?

Textbooks and culture wars how should we teach history

Textbooks and Culture Wars:How Should We Teach History?

Questions for discussion8

Questions for Discussion

  • What are the consequences of the way we shape/interpret history?

  • Is there a certain age at which student should be exposed to history as interpretation?

  • How should we teach patriotism in schools? And how should patriotism be defined?

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