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Functional Behavior Assessment – FBA Alanna McMullan – [email protected] FBA. Learn method for data collection Analyze data to determine the function Use competing pathways to analyze antecedent modifications, behavior to be taught, consequence manipulation, and setting changes necessary.

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FBA

  • Learn method for data collection

  • Analyze data to determine the function

  • Use competing pathways to analyze antecedent modifications, behavior to be taught, consequence manipulation, and setting changes necessary



What is fba
What is FBA ?

  • Method for gathering information about situational events that predict and maintain problem behavior


Questions to address
Questions to Address

  • How often does the behavior occur/how long does it last?

  • Where does the behavior typically occur/never occur?

  • Who is present for the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior?


Questions to address1
Questions to Address

  • What is going on during the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior?

  • When is the behavior most/least likely to occur?

  • How does the student react to usual consequences that follow behavior?


When must we do an fba
When must we do an FBA?

  • Behavior that impedes learning

  • Need to create a behavior support plan

  • Patterns of behavior are developing

  • Suspensions

  • Change of placement due to behavior


Foundational assumptions
Foundational Assumptions

  • Behavior is learned and serves a specific function

  • Environmental conditions can set up, set off, or maintain problem behavior


Changing the way we think
Changing the Way We Think

Changing the environment

vs.

“fixing the person”


Changing our view
Changing Our View

  • Understand why challenging behaviors happen and what purpose they serve

  • Focus on developing a broader range of skills and outcomes for children

  • Implement interventions for these behaviors that help children learn new behaviors

  • Develop preventative interventions that are practical and ongoing


Changing our view1
Changing Our View

  • Take the problem away from the child and ask:

    • Whyis this behavior occurring?

  • What changes can I maketo prevent the problem from occurring and teach the child new skills?


What is behavior
What is Behavior?

Behavior


How can we change behavior
How can we “change” behavior?

  • The only behavior you can control is your own…so how can we change student behavior?



Abc s of behavior
ABC’s of Behavior

  • Antecedent - what happens before the behavioral event

  • Behavior – measurable/countable and observable

  • Consequence - any event that follows the behavior (reinforcement or punishment)


Behavior

Function:

  • the purpose that the behavior serves

    • a.) to get/gain something

    • b.) to avoid/escape something

    • c.) todelaysomething


Identifying functions of behavior
Identifying Functions of Behavior

  • Look at the situationin which the behavior occurs

    • Identify and describe the challenging behavior

    • Identify what events, people, activities, are usually associated with the behavior

      Antecedents and Consequences…


Functions of behavior
Functions of Behavior

  • Identify the outcome of the behavior

    • Ask yourself “What is this child getting by engaging in this behavior”?

      • Obtaining peer or adult attention?

      • Obtaining an activity, materials, food, toy?

      • Escaping a task or activity?

      • Escaping peer or adult attention?

      • Self stimulation?


Functions of challenging behaviors
Functions of Challenging Behaviors

  • Why do children do these behaviors?

  • What is the purpose or outcome for the child?




Methods for conducting fba
Methods for Conducting FBA

  • Indirect Methods

    • MAS- Motivational Assessment Scale

    • FAST – Functional Analysis Screening Tool

    • PBQ- Problem Behavior Questionnaire


Methods for conducting fba1
Methods for Conducting FBA

  • Direct Methods

    • ABC analysis

    • Scatter plot

    • Interval or time sampling


Components of FBA

A TEAM process consisting of:

Step 1. Informant interviewing

Step 2. Direct observation with data collection

Step 3. Analysis of all information

gathered


Components
Components

Step 1. Informant interviewing:

  • Focus on A and C

  • Helps establish specific behavior

  • Look at routines not the child (A)

  • Develop testable hypothesis


Functional assessment interview
Functional Assessment Interview

  • An interview that describes the problem behavior and identifies environmental factors that reliably result in the challenging behavior


Function assessment interview
Function Assessment Interview

  • Ask the following questions:

    • What exactly does the behavior look like?

    • What do you think is the possible reason that the child is engaging in the behavior?

    • What events/situations predict the behavior?

    • What does the child like and not like?

    • How does the child communicate what she or he likes or dislikes?

    • Does the child have skill deficits?

    • What other things may be related to the behavior?

      • Does the child have a illness?

      • Is the family in transition?


Who should be interviewed
Who should be interviewed?

Teachers, student, support staff, parents, family members, and other relevant persons who work with or know the individual well.


Interviewing hints tips
Interviewing - Hints & Tips

  • Ask for specific examples – If I closed my eyes…

  • Keep asking questions - “What”


Fba worksheet
FBA Worksheet

Step 1: Functional Assessment Interview


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE—Parent interview

Description of Behavior of Concern (specifically describe what the behavior looks like): tantrum behaviors (throwing toys/objects, falling to the floor, screaming, kicking)


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Physiological and Medical Factors:

1. Could the behavior be the result of a medical condition or any

form of physical discomfort?

NO X

YES___________________________________________

2. Could the behavior be related to a side effect of medication?

NO X

YES____________________________________________

3. Could the behavior be the result of some physical deprivation

condition (thirst, hunger, lack of rest, etc.)?

NO X

YES____________________________________________


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Antecedents and Establishing Operations:

1. Are there circumstances in which the behavior

ALWAYS occurs?

NO ___________________________________

YES --When she has to transition to non-preferred activities

2. Are there circumstances in which the behavior

NEVER occurs?

NO ____________________________________

YES --During free time


Step 1 informant interview maggie
Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Antecedents and Establishing Operations:

3. Does the behavior occur only (or more often) during

particular activities?

NO ___

YES---Transition to Circle Time and other large group

activities on the floor

4. Does the behavior occur only with (or more likely with)

certain people?

NO X

YES_________________________________________


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Antecedents and Establishing Operations:

5. Does the behavior occur in response to certain stimuli? (demands, termination of preferred activities, tone of voice, noise level, ignoring, change in routine, transitions, number of people in the room, etc.)

 NO

X YES---During transitions to non-preferred activities

6. Does the behavior occur only (or more likely) during a certain time of day? (morning, afternoon, end of school day, evening)

 NO

X YES---In the morning


Skill deficits
Skill Deficits

Could the behavior of concern be related to skill deficits? Ex. social, communication, self-regulation

*Challenging behavior should not be viewed as a barrier to teaching communication, social skills, academic skills, etc.


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Consequence Factors:

1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain anything?

A. Preferred activities or items?

Indicators: Often occurs when you take a particular item away from the student or when you terminate a preferred activity, when you inform the student that he/she cannot have a certain item or engage in a particular activity. Rarely occurs when you give the student free access to his/her favorite items or activities.

NO X

YES ___________________________________________________________

B. Peer or adult attention?

Indicators: Student frequently approaches you or others, initiates social interaction. When behavior occurs, you or others usually respond by interacting with the student (reprimand, redirection, comforting statements). Rarely occurs when receiving lots of attention.

NO X

YES________________________________________________________


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Consequence Factors:

2. Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape anything (task demands, social interaction, etc.)?

Indicators: Behavior occurs when you place demands on the student. Rarely occurs when you place few demands on the student or when left alone. Student is often noncompliant when asked to complete tasks and the student sometimes or always avoids or postpones the task. Often occurs prior to predictable demands and the student sometimes or always avoids or postpones the task.

NO ____

YES ---Avoids and sometimes escapes Circle Time


Step 1: Informant InterviewMAGGIE

Consequence Factors:

3. Does the behavior provide stimulation activity (an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities)?

Indicators: Occurs frequently when the student is alone or unoccupied. Student seems to have few known reinforcers or rarely engages in social interaction activities. Behavior is typically not attended to by you or others.

NO X

YES_______________________________________________


Fba worksheet1
FBA Worksheet

Step 2: Direct Observation with Data Collection


Step 2 direct observation with data collection
Step 2: Direct Observation with Data Collection

  • Defines the behavior more explicitly

  • Supports OR refutes informant interview information

  • Determines baseline levels

  • Provides objective information on behavioral events


Step 2 direct observation with data collection1
Step 2: Direct Observation with Data Collection

  • Leads to more accurate hypothesis of the function of the behavior

  • Allows for assessment in the student’s natural environment

  • Provides information necessary for building an effective Behavior Intervention Plan


Steps to the data collection process
Steps to the Data Collection Process

  • Determine the purpose for data collection.

  • Define the behavior (one at a time) specifically and measurably.

  • Decide where, how often, and who will collect data.

  • Design a data collection tool(s) to fit your needs-- simple, but functional with clear coding system.

  • Transfer the data to a visual representation (graph).



Direct observation data
Direct Observation Data

  • ABC

    • Easy to use for recorder and evaluator

    • Data documented in a consistent manner

    • Look for patterns in both antecedent and consequences


John hit the peer and threw a desk on the floor

John threw the desk on the floor

John was removed from the room and sent to the office

Teacher sent John to the office

1/8/06 Peer teased John

1/9/06 Teacher gave John a math sheet



Abc behavior card
ABC Behavior Card

Antecedents

Behavior

Consequences

1

2

transition

2a

4a

throwing objects

1

3

choice given

3

4

2

4

close proximity

personal space

given

1

2

disruptive outburst

3

4

2a

4a

changed activity

redirected

physical prompt

told “no”


Event recording
Event Recording

Target Behavior: Tantrums (kicking, screaming, biting)


Duration recording
Duration Recording

Target Behavior: Screaming


Fba data
FBA Data

  • 1. Scatterplot recording:

    • Baseline frequency/duration

    • Direct observation tool

    • Visual representation for simpler data

    • Helps to recognize patterns


FBA Step 2: ScatterplotTally of discreet episodes of refusals accompanied by inappropriate verbalizations


Behavior doctor tool
Behavior Doctor Tool

www.behaviordoctor.org


Fba step 3 analysis of information and hypothesis development
FBA Step 3: Analysis of Information and Hypothesis Development

  • Summarize and analyze data for patterns to determine function based on antecedents and consequences

  • Develop hypothesis statement


Fba step 3 analysis of information and hypothesis development1
FBA Step 3: Analysis of Information and Hypothesis Development

  • “When (antecedents),(student) will (behavior of concern), in order to (perceived function of the behavior of concern).”


Fba step 3 developing a hypothesis statement
FBA: Step 3: Development Developing a Hypothesis Statement

  • When given independent work or work that she perceives to be difficult, Roxanne will refuse to follow the request accompanied by inappropriate verbalization (swearing, name calling, and verbal challenges),in order to escape or avoid the task.

  • Team will need to address skill deficits.


Examples
EXAMPLES Development

  • In a very warm classroom when presented with a difficult task Jason will tantrum (scream, cry, drop to the floor) and bite his arm to escape the task.

  • When Carl is tired and asked to sit and eat lunch in the noisy cafeteria he will slam his tray down and spit at the cafeteria aides in order to be escorted from the room.


Example 1
Example 1 Development

ABC's of Behavior

  • Jared talks out at least two times per class. Hesmiles, and other students snicker, when his teachers remind him to raise his hand. Since the beginning of the year, the problem seems worse.

    What might be the function of Jared’s behavior?


Example 2
Example 2 Development

ABC's of Behavior

  • Colleen forgets her homework at least 3 times a week. The classroom consequence is to stay in at recess and do the homework with the teacher.

    What might be the function of Colleen’s behavior?


Assessment to intervention
Assessment to Intervention Development

Designing and Implementing

Positive Behavior Support Plans


  • Positive Behavior Support Plans Development

  • …connection between assessment and

  • intervention

    • Antecedent manipulation

    • Teaching replacement/alternative behaviors

    • Develop this into a goal

    • Decrease (or change) the behavior of concern

    • Ongoing data collection (progress monitoring)


BEHAVIOR PLAN COMPONENTS Development

A

B

Antecedents

Replacement Skills

● Skill deficit areas

● Create a goal

●This is about our behavior

●Setting up the environment

C

C

REINFORCEMENT for new behavior

Consequences to address behavior of concern

● Hierarchy of responses to behavior of concern

● Should not be what maintained the behavior

● What are we doing to reinforce new replacement

skills


Positive behavior support plans
Positive Behavior Support Plans Development

  • Antecedent (prevention) strategies

    • strategies to remove/reduce identified antecedents to the behavior of concern

    • strategies to make the behavior of concern

    • unnecessary in specific situations

    • strategies to assist with the performance of the replacement behavior (cues and prompts)

    • long term strategies to remediate skill deficits

A


Positive behavior support plans1
Positive Behavior Support Plans Development

  • ●Replacement Behavior (teaching and maintaining)

    • Identify functionally equivalent

    • replacement behavior.

  • Consider…

  • ●Is the replacement behavior effective and efficient for the student to use?

  • ●The Response Effort: how difficult is it for the person to perform the behavior? (physically and/or

  • cognitively)

  • B


    Positive behavior support plans2
    Positive Behavior Support Plans Development

    Consequence strategies

    Reinforcement for performance of the replacement behavior.

    Reinforcement often consists solely of the student achieving the identified function of the behavior of concern through use of the replacement behavior.

    C


    Types of Reinforcement Development

    ■ Natural Positive Reinforcement

    ■ Edible Reinforcement

    ■ Material Reinforcement

    ■ Social Reinforcement


    Reinforcement schedule
    Reinforcement Schedule Development

    Immediate

    Frequent

    Enthusiastic

    Eye-Contact

    Descriptive

    Anticipation

    Variety


    Positive behavior support plans3
    Positive Behavior Support Plans Development

    • Consequence strategies

      • This ensures that the behavior

      • of concern is less effective and

      • efficient than the replacement

      • behavior.

    • **This is the section that includes the crisis

    • plan (a plan to outline the steps taken to avoid a

    • crisis as well as the plan for when a crisis occurs)

    C


    Positive behavior support plans4
    Positive Behavior Support Plans Development

    • Remember…it is an ongoing process…

      • ●Data collection for progress monitoring

      • ●Long term antecedent (prevention)

      • strategies to address the educational

      • (skill) deficit(s) related to the behavior of

      • concern

      • ●Crisis Planning


    Resources
    Resources Development

    www.interventioncentral.org

    www.pattan.k12.pa.us

    www.behaviordoctor.org

    www.disciplinehelp.com


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