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Ghettoization: 1900-1940. Cities were not segregated before 1900 Most Blacks lived in rural areas Industrialization and urbanization Growing population of workers in new housing Blacks much more concentrated Black migration to northern cities Labor competition fueled race riots (e.g., 1919)

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Ghettoization 1900 1940 l.jpg
Ghettoization: 1900-1940

  • Cities were not segregated before 1900

    • Most Blacks lived in rural areas

  • Industrialization and urbanization

    • Growing population of workers in new housing

    • Blacks much more concentrated

  • Black migration to northern cities

    • Labor competition fueled race riots (e.g., 1919)

    • Legal restrictions followed residential pattern


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Suburbanization: 1940-1970

  • Ghettos grew

    • Whites moved to suburbs

    • Blacks moved from South/rural to cities

  • Federal support for homeownership

    • ‘Redlining’ Black neighborhoods

      • FHA loans based on rating system

    • Support for new development, and highways

  • 1960s: Race riots

  • 1968: Fair Housing Act (too late)


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Concentration: 1970s-present

  • Concentration of poverty

    • Deindustrialization

    • Fiscal crisis of cities

    • Continued suburbanization

    • Lack of anti-discrimination enforcement

  • Middle-class flight continues

  • New segregated suburbs

  • Some improvements, especially new cities



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Average percent poor in schools, 2000

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu


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Black/White residential segregation220 major metro areas

Source: Iceland et al. (2002) U.S. Census Bureau.


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Average neighborhood income: Black households as % of White households

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu


Average neighborhood income black households as of white households households with 60 000 l.jpg
Average neighborhood income: Black households as % of White households (households with $60,000+)

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu


Average neighborhood income for households with income 60 000 l.jpg
Average neighborhood income for households with income $60,000+

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu


Black white segregation of public elementary school children l.jpg
Black/White segregation of public elementary school children $60,000+

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu


Black white segregation of public elementary school children11 l.jpg
Black/White segregation of public elementary school children $60,000+

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu


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