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Strategies for re-operations in consecutive / recurrent strabismus Start off with humility : it is much easier than having it thrust on you. Fusion LVPEI Hyderabad 2012 Lionel Kowal Melbourne, Australia. 1. Strategies for residual / consecutive / recurrent Esodeviations.

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fusion lvpei hyderabad 2012 lionel kowal melbourne australia

Strategies for re-operations in consecutive / recurrent strabismusStart off with humility : it is much easier than having it thrust on you

Fusion LVPEI Hyderabad 2012

Lionel Kowal

Melbourne, Australia

residual recurrent et why 1 reason underplussed or otherwise accommodative
Residual / Recurrent ET : WHY?#1 Reason: Underplussedor otherwise accommodative.
  • Simple office test: pilocarpine 2% stat OU
  • Check cyclo refraction again
  • Check cyclo refraction again

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

residual why other less common reasons
Residual : WHY?Other less common reasons
  • Range BMR for 15 – 50 Δ: surgical tables very reliable, but not 100% ‘bell curve’.
  • R-R: has the LR slipped?
  • Is there an orbital problem : occult Graves’
  • Is there a supranuclear problem: Chiari
  • Is the globe unusually big: ‘simple’ myopia OR ‘myopic strabismus fixus’

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

does the muscle always end up where you plan to put it
Does the muscle always end up where you plan to put it?
  • PAT in ET study in late 1980’s. All recessions were photographed with caliper
  • 25 % were under- / over- recessed by ≥ 1mm even though the surgeon knew the photo was going to be reviewed
  • ±1mm can have 5-10Δ effect / muscle
  • Uncertainty of scar formation

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

recurrent et after recess resect
Recurrent ET after recess/resect

Consider slipped LR.

  • LK : aBduction deficit not apparent for >12 mo
  • Re-presented like ‘acute 6th’ , presumably having suddenly exceeded motor fusional reserve
  • ? Detect with 50 MHz UBM?

Kraft successful; Kowal not reliable

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

occult graves
Occult Graves’
  • Rare in childhood / adolescence
  • Uncommon cause of poor surgical result in ET in adolescents

ENLARGED MUSCLE STRABISMUS

Kowal et alii in ‘Progress in Strabismology’: 9th meeting of the International Strabismological Association’ 2003, @ pp 257-9

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

residual why
Residual : WHY?
  • Range BMR for 15 – 50 Δ: surgical tables very reliable. Expectation 2nd surgery ~10% in Y1
  • R-R: has the LR slipped?
  • Is there an orbital problem : occult Graves’
  • Is there a supranuclear problem: Chiari
  • Is the globe unusually big: ‘simple’ myopia OR ‘myopic strabismus fixus’

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

slide9
Chiari: age at presentation of strabismusKowal L, Yahalom C, Shuey NH Chiari 1 malformation presenting as strabismus BVQ 2006; 21:18-26

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

Most of the patients presented outside normal age range for strabismus

residual why1
Residual : WHY?
  • Range BMR for 15 – 50 Δ: surgical tables very reliable. Expectation 2nd surgery ~10% in Y1
  • R-R: has the LR slipped?
  • Is there an orbital problem : occult Graves’
  • Is there a supranuclear problem: Chiari
  • Is the globe unusually big: ‘simple’ myopia OR ‘myopic strabismus fixus’

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

simple myopia modify surgical dose for axial length
‘Simple myopia’ - Modify surgical dose for axial length
  • Data is ? inconclusive / supportive - in the eye of the reader
  • Large globe = larger circumference
  • Need larger recession to achieve same angular effect as on a small globe

LK: normal globe 22mm ± 10%

  • >24.2 mm: augment recession dose by 10%
  • >26.4 mm: … by 20%

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

et of myopic strabismus fixus have to do the correct operation

181.1 deg.

103.6 deg.

SR

SR

LR

LR

Preoperative

Postoperative

ET of Myopic Strabismus Fixus – have to do the correct operation

.

From Yokoyama

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

some rare reasons
Some rare reasons
  • Sphenoid sinusitis
  • Ditropan medication for enuresis

Oxybutynin-associated esotropia Wong, Harding & Kowal J AAPOS 2007;11:624-625.

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

treatment of residual recurrent et what to do now
Treatment of Residual / Recurrent ET: What to do now?
  • 1. Push +
  • 2. MR Botox:

very good for ~20 Δ residual ET

  • 3. Reoperate

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

table 1 botox in esotropia sahare kowal marshman
Table 1 : Botox in EsotropiaSahare, Kowal, Marshman
  • N PRE INJ POST INJ %CHANGE
  • Residual 7 26 ∆ 5 ∆ 59
  • Consec 6 32 9 74
  • Large 5 64 22 66
  • Cong 1 80 0 100

with surgery

Kowal

Hyderabad 2012

principles of residual et surgery reoperation 1
Principles of residual ET surgery Reoperation 1
  • If there’s a problem [e.g. slipped LR] you must fix it
  • Difficult / unpredictable. Use adjustables.

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

principles of residual et surgery 2 previous bmr
Principles of residual ET surgery 2. Previous BMR:
  • FDT. If MR tight: plan to recess a little more
  • Explore each MR. If MR already @ 11 - 11.5mm from limbus, don’t recess more – will result in consecutive XT [whereas MR Botox won’t]
  • LR resect OU: deduct 0.5mm per muscle from usual tables
  • Difficult / unpredictable. Use adjustables. If too young, improve the springback test

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

principles of residual et surgery 3 after recess resect
Principles of residual ET surgery 3. After Recess – Resect
  • FDT. If MR tight: plan to recess a little more
  • Explore each MR. If MR already @ 11 - 11.5mm from limbus, don’t recess more – will result in consecutive XT [whereas Botox won’t]
  • R-R other eye is usually the most predictable operation
  • Difficult / unpredictable. Use adjustables.

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

re recessing the mr guidelines to get me started
Re-recessing the MR – guidelines to get me started
  • Let us say I have a pt with residual or recurrent ET of 25Δ.
  • On a normal globe, it is safe to recess to 6.5mm from limbus
  • If I want an extras 25Δ effect = 12.5Δ from each of 2 muscles.

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

re recessing the mr guidelines to get me started1
Re-recessing the MR – guidelines to get me started
  • Let us say I find the MR 8.5mm from limbus = 3mm recess = ‘A’
  • BMR 3 is for ET 15Δ. BMR 5.5 is for ET 40Δ.
  • The difference is 40 -15 = 25Δ = 12.5Δ x 2.
  • Each MR if moved from 3mm recess to 5.5 mm recess can be expected to have a 12.5Δ effect.
  • So I can expect that when I move an MR from ‘A’ a distance of 2.5mm and a 2nd muscle for a 12.5Δ effect I will get the 25Δ effect I need

FROM KEN WRIGHT’S BOOK

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

consecutive et
Consecutive ET

Simple – not worrying:

  • Small angle, intermittent, week 1 after 1st XT surgery, not bothersome to patient

Of Greater Concern:

  • Larger angle [esp ≥20Δ] , ≥2 previous surgeries, some incomitance, bothersome to patient

Of Very Great concern:

  • ≥25Δ in week 1 [esp. >30] , not improving quickly

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

valenzuela a clade 2000
Valenzuela, A CLADE 2000
  • 134 pts operated intermittent XT. Follow up >3y!
  • If initial alignment between 5Δ XT & 20Δ ET: 90% ended up small phorias, E [≤5Δ] or X [≤10Δ]
  • No difference in subgroups in this range [0-5Δ XT had same outcome as 15-20Δ ET]
  • ≥15Δ XT: all had poor result
  • 5 pts 25-30Δ ET: 3 ended up OK
  • Exodrift continued for ~12 mo

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

if not getting better
If not getting better…….
  • LK preferred technique: MR botox
  • UK: ~ 50% success in delayed group
  • Repeat surgery - usually explore muscles and undo some of the surgery

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

table 1 esotropia
Table 1 : Esotropia
  • N PRE INJ POST INJ %CHANGE
  • Residual 7 26 ∆ 5 ∆ 59
  • Consec 6 32 9 74
  • Large 5 64 22 66
  • Cong 1 80 0 100

with surgery

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

how common is consec xt
HOW COMMON IS CONSEC XT?

Alberto Ciancia [Argentina]:

90% perfect early alignment after cong ET surgery [n=390]

 30% consec XT over next 25y [50% followup]

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

50 of patients 2 nd 3 rd decades after last et surgery
50% of patients: 2ND & 3RD decades after last ET surgery

KOWAL

personal series

MEDIAN TIME TO SURGERY 22 YRS. AVERAGE 23.

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

scar remodeling after strabismus surgery irene ludwig md alan chow md jaapos 4 326 333 2000
Scar remodeling after strabismus surgeryIrene Ludwig, MD, Alan  Chow, MD JAAPOS 4: 326-333; 2000

“When we explored the … muscles of patients with such overcorrections, the expectation was that the muscles would be found normally healed at their original surgical attachment sites and that repositioning ….would repair the deviations.

… many of the overcorrection cases demonstrated a segment of amorphous scar tissue separating the tendon from its attachment site on the sclera”

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

When we explored the previously operated muscles of patients with such overcorrections, the expectation was that the muscles would be found normally healed at their original surgical attachment sites and that repositioning of the insertions would repair the deviations. We found, however, that many of the overcorrection cases demonstrated a segment of amorphous scar tissue separating the tendon from its attachment site on the sclera

  • The mean time between the original strabismus surgery and the scar repair was 122 months (range, 1 to 612 months). The median age of the patients at the time of repair was 18.8 years (range, 3.1 to 67.8 years).
  • Forty-three patients with lengthened scars were able to date the onset of recurrent strabismus, some by recollection and some with medical record documentation. Twenty-one of the cases developed within 4 months of surgery (probable early stretching), and 20 developed after 18 months (probable late stretching), one as long after as 516 months.
  • The time course of the development of strabismus overcorrection was gradual in most cases, and overcorrection was not seen in any patients immediately after surgery, as would be expected with an improperly attached muscle. Stretched scar segments were frequently bilateral and symmetrical, which would be unlikely in a true slipped muscle case. The cases of documented restretching in spite of repair with firm reattachment of tendon to sclera also support the contention that a lengthened scar is different from a slipped muscle. Scar segments were shorter than the long capsule described with slipped muscles. Dense connective tissue consistent with scar tissue was documented histologically in these cases, as opposed to the capsule of a slipped muscle, which would show loose connective tissue.
scar remodeling after strabismus surgery
Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery

Relative to all reoperation cases, lengthened scars were estimated to be found … in the subset of patients with late overcorrections, in about 50%[LK series: 42%]

  • Mean time between original strabismus surgery and scar repair 122 mo (range 1-612 mo). [LK series: 307 mo]
  • Median age at time of repair 19 y (range 3-68 y) [LK series: 33 y, range 3-68y !].

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

these are difficult cases
These are difficult cases

Need to make MR function normal or XT will recur

  • Difficult to dissect out tendons
  • Muscle ‘meat’ can be 20+ mm from limbus
  • Try to use Mersilene or other non-absorbable
  • Keep Mersilene knot >8-9mm from limbus
  • Adjustables often necessary
  • Fat may be present
  • NO surgical tables
  • Intra-op ‘spring back’ as a guide
  • Guide: Early ET ≥ 10 ∆
summary consec xt
SUMMARY - CONSEC XT
  • Common in a dedicated strabismus practice
  • Common in a cong ET population
  • Expect 2/3 to do very well
  • 10% do not do well

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

re recessing the lr guidelines to get me started
Re-recessing the LR – guidelines to get me started
  • Let us say I have a pt with residual or recurrent XT of 25Δ.
  • On a normal globe, it is reliable to recess LR to 9mm from the original insertion
  • If I want an extra 25Δ effect = 12.5Δ from each of 2 muscles.

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

re recessing the lr guidelines to get me started1
Re-recessing the LR – guidelines to get me started
  • Let us say I find the LR 4mm from insertion = ‘A’
  • LR Rc 4mm OU is for XT 15Δ. Rc 8 mm is for XT 40Δ.
  • The difference is 40 - 15 = 25Δ = 12.5Δ x 2.
  • Each LR if moved from 4mm recess to 8 mm recess can be expected to have a 12.5Δ effect.
  • So I can expect that when I move a LR from ‘A’ a distance of 4mm and a 2nd muscle for a 12.5Δ effect I will get the 25Δ effect I need

FROM KEN WRIGHT’S BOOK

Kowal Hyderabad 2012

thank you
Thank You

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Kowal Hyderabad 2012

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