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Computernetze 1 (CN1). 2 Ethernet Grundlagen. Prof. Dr. Andreas Steffen Institute for Internet Technologies and Applications. Lesestoff im Ethernet Buch. Kapitel 2 Ethernet, Seiten 31-83 2.1 Die Geschichte des Ethernet 2.2 Der Physical Layer 2.3 10Base5 2.4 10Base2

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Computernetze 1 cn1

Computernetze 1 (CN1)

2 Ethernet Grundlagen

Prof. Dr. Andreas Steffen

Institute for Internet Technologies and Applications


Lesestoff im ethernet buch

Lesestoffim Ethernet Buch

  • Kapitel 2 Ethernet, Seiten 31-83

    2.1 Die Geschichte des Ethernet

    2.2 Der Physical Layer

    2.3 10Base5

    2.4 10Base2

    2.6 10BaseT

    2.7 10BaseF

    2.8 Das Manchester-Kodierungsverfahren

    2.9 Media Access Control (MAC)

  • Kapitel 6 Ethernet Internals, Seiten 208-214

    6.2 Power over Ethernet

  • Selbststudium

    ErarbeitenSiealsVorbereitungfür die Übung 2

    selbstständig das Thema “Media Access Control”

    mitHilfe von Kapitels 2.9 des Ethernet Buchs und

    des Kapitels 2.4 dieses Foliensatzes.


Wie es begann

Wie es begann...

  • 1972 stoss Robert Metcalfe auf ein Paper von Norman Abramson, welches das Aloha Random Access System der Universität Hawaii beschrieb.

  • Ausgehend von Aloha erfand er am Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) das robuste CSMA/CD* Protokoll, mit dem mehrere Teilnehmer fast kollisionsfrei auf ein „shared-medium“ zugreifen können.

  • 1976 stellte er sein Protokoll unter dem NamenEthernet an einer Konferenz vor.

  • 1979 gründete er die Firma 3Com.* Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection


Computernetze 1 cn11

Computernetze 1 (CN1)

2.1 Ethernet Standards


Ethernet und das osi modell

Ethernet und das OSI Modell

802.2

802.3 Ethernet


Ieee 802

IEEE 802

  • LAN standardization is done

    • by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronical Engineers)

    • The IEEE LAN/MAN standards committee 802 was founded in February 1980

  • OSI Data Link Layer (Layer 2)

    • was originally designed for point-to-point line communication

    • but LAN is multipoint line, shared media

  • Therefore OSI Layer 2 had to be split into two sublayers

    • Logical Link Control (LLC)

    • Media Access Control (MAC)


Aufgaben der schicht 2

Aufgaben der Schicht 2

  • Verbindungsverwaltung

    • Connect request, indication, response, confirm, etc.

    • Synchronisation von gemeinsamen Zählern, etc.

  • Fehlererkennung und evtl. Korrektur

    • Vorwärtsfehlerkorrektur Erkennen+Rückmelden+Wiederholung (ARQ), etc.

  • Flusssteuerung / Flow Control

    • Achtung: nur für das nächste Segment

  • Erstellen von Rahmen / Frames

    • Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, ATM etc.

    • Layer 2 Addressierung dieser Frames

  • Zugriffsverfahren

    • Wie teile ich mir ein gemeinsames Medium mit anderen Kommunikationspartnern ?

Logical

Link

Control

(LLC)

Media

Access

Control

(MAC)


Ieee 802 working groups

IEEE 802 Working Groups

IEEE

Standard Boards

IEEE 802

LAN/MAN

Standard Committee

802.24

Smart GridTechnicalAdvisory Group

802.1

Higher Layer

LAN Protocols

Working Group

802.3

EthernetWorking Group

802.11

Wireless LANWorking Group

P802.3bk

Extended Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPON)

P802.3bm

40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Operation over Fiber Optic Cables

P802.3bq

40GBASE-T

P802.3bj

100 Gb/s Backplane & Copper Cable


Ieee 802 active working groups

IEEE 802 Active Working Groups

  • 802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols Working Group

  • 802.3 Ethernet Working Group

  • 802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group

  • 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network Working Group

  • 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group (WiMAX)

  • 802.18 Radio Regulatory Technical Advisory Group

  • 802.19 Wireless Coexistence Working Group

  • 802.21 Media Independent Handoff Working Group

  • 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks Working Group

  • 802.24 Smart Grid Technical Advisory Group


Ieee 802 inactive and disbanded working groups

IEEE 802 Inactive and Disbanded Working Groups

  • 802.2 Logical Link Control Working GroupInactive

  • 802.4 Token Bus Working GroupDisbanded

  • 802.5 Token Ring Working GroupInactive

  • 802.6 Metropolitan Area Network Working GroupDisbanded

  • 802.7 Broadband Technical Advisory Group Disbanded

  • 802.8 Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Disbanded

  • 802.9 Integrated Services LAN Working GroupDisbanded

  • 802.10 Security Working Group Disbanded

  • 802.12 Demand Priority Working Group Inactive

  • 802.14 Cable Modem Working Group Disbanded

  • 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring Working GroupInactive

  • 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access WGInactive

  • 802.23 Emergency Services Working GroupDisbanded


Computernetze 1 cn12

Computernetze 1 (CN1)

2.2 Ethernet Physical Layer (PHY)


Ethernet ieee 802 3 overview

Ethernet IEEE 802.3 Overview

Fiber

Twisted Pair

Coax

Rarely used

10GBase-T

802.3an-2006

40/100Gbps

802.3ba-2010


Ethernet technology overview

Ethernet Technology Overview

Logical Link Control LLC

Data Link Layer

MAC Control (optional)

Media Access Control MAC

PLS

Reconciliation

Reconciliation

Reconciliation

AUI

MII

MII

GMII

PLS

PCS

PCS

AUI

PMA

PMA

PHY

PMA (MAU)

PMA

PMD

PMD

MDI

MDI

MDI

MDI

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

1-10 Mbit/s

10 Mbit/s

100 Mbit/s

1000 Mbit/s

AUI...Attachment Unit Interface, PLS...Physical Line Signaling, MDI...Medium Dependent Interface,PCS...Physical Coding Sublayer, MII...Media Independent Interface, GMII...Gigabit Media Independent Interface, PMA...Physical Medium Attachment, MAU...Medium Attachment Unit, PMD...Physical Medium Dependent


Phy sublayers

PHY Sublayers

  • Physical Line Signaling (PLS) serves as an abstraction layer between MAC and PHY and provides

    • Data encoding/decoding (Manchester)

    • Signalling of media states (busy, free, collision occurred etc.)

    • Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) to connect with PMA

  • Several new coding techniques demand for a Media Independent Interface (MII) that serves as an interface between MAC and PHY

    • hides coding issues from the MAC layer

    • MII: often a mechanical connector for a wire; GMII is an interface specification between MAC-chip and PHY-chip upon a circuit board

    • one independent specification for all physical media

    • supports several data rates (10/100/1000 Mbits/s)

    • 4 bit (GMII: 8 bit) parallel transmission channels to the physical layer

  • Today coding is done through a media-dependent Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS) below the MII.


Phy sublayers1

PHY Sublayers

  • Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS)

    • encapsulates MAC-frame between special PCS delimiters

    • 4B/5B or 8B/10B encoding respectively

    • appends idle symbols

  • Physical Medium Attachment (PMA)

    • interface between PCS and PMD

    • (de) serializes data for PMD (PCS)

  • Physical Medium Dependent (PMD)

    • serial transmission of the codegroups

    • specification of the various connectors (MDI)


10base5

10Base5

  • Introduced in 1980 as part of the original IEEE 802.3 standard.

  • Transmits 10 Mbps over a single thick coaxial cable bus.

  • The primary benefit of 10Base5 was its length:up to 500m without a repeater.

  • 10Base5 uses Manchester encoding.

  • The thick and sturdy cable was difficult to install and was therefore called Thick Netor due to its color Yellow Cable.


10base2 i

10Base2 I

  • Introduced in 1985.

  • Installation is easier then 10Base5 because of its lighter size and greater flexibility. Therefore it was called Thin Net or Cheaper Net.

  • 10Base2 also uses Manchester encoding.

  • Computers on the LAN are linked together by an uninterrupted chain of coaxial cable lengths.

  • These lengths are attached by BNC connectors to a T-shaped connector on the NIC.

  • Each 10Base2 segment may be up to 185 meters long and may accommodate up to 30 stations.


10base2 ii

10Base2 II

Termination of each end of the coax should be 50 Ohms.

Minimum distance between taps is 0.5 meters.

Each station must be connected within four centimeters ofthe thin coaxial cable.

Maximum segment length is 185 meters.

Link segments between repeaters should have a total ofonly two attachments, the repeaters themselves.


10base t i

10Base-T I

  • Introduced in 1990.

  • 10base-T uses cheap and easy to install Cat 3 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) copper cable rather than coaxial cable.

  • The UTP cable is plugged into a central connection device that contains the shared bus => Hub.

  • Preferred Topologies: Star and Extended Star.

  • Originally 10Base-T was a half-duplex protocol, but full-duplex features were added later.

  • 10Base-T also uses Manchester encoding.

  • Due to their high attenuation 10Base-T links can haveunrepeated lengths of up to 100 m.


10base t ii

10Base-T II

  • UTP cable uses RJ-45 connectors with eight pins.

  • Cat 3 cable is adequate for use in 10Base-T networks, althoughCat 5e or better is strongly recommended for any new cable installations.

  • All four pairs of wires are used either with the straight-through T568-A or the cross-over T568-B cable pinout arrangement.

Pin

Signal

1

TD+ (Transmit Data)

2

TD- (Transmit Data)

3

RD+ (Receive Data)

4

a (reserved for POTS)

5

b (reserved for POTS)

6

RD- (Receive Data)

7

unused

8

unused


Power over ethernet ieee 802 3af poe

1

1

Alternative A

Alternative B

Pair 3

2

2

4

4

1

1

Pair 3

Pair 1

5

5

2

2

350 mA

13.0 [email protected]

350 mA

13.0 [email protected]

48 V DC

48 V DC

7

7

3

3

Pair 2

Pair 4

PSE

PD

8

8

6

6

PSE

PD

3

3

Pair 2

6

6

Power-over-Ethernet (IEEE 802.3af PoE)

PSE Power Sourcing Equipment

PD Powered Device


Power over ethernet ieee 802 3at poe

1

1

Alternative A

Alternative B

Pair 3

2

2

4

4

1

1

Pair 3

Pair 1

5

5

2

2

600 mA

25.5 [email protected]

600 mA

25.5 [email protected]

53 V DC

53 V DC

7

7

3

3

Pair 2

Pair 4

PSE

PD

8

8

6

6

PSE

PD

3

3

Pair 2

6

6

Power-over-Ethernet (IEEE 802.3at PoE+)

PSE Power Sourcing Equipment

PD Powered Device


Power over ethernet ieee 802 3at poe1

1

1

Alternative A

Alternative B

Pair 3

2

2

4

4

1

1

Pair 3

Pair 1

5

5

2

2

600 mA

25.5 [email protected]

600 mA

25.5 [email protected]

53 V DC

53 V DC

7

7

3

3

Pair 2

Pair 4

PSE

PD

8

8

6

6

PSE

PD

3

3

Pair 2

6

6

Power-over-Ethernet (IEEE 802.3at PoE+)

PSE Power Sourcing Equipment

PD Powered Device


Energy efficient ethernet ieee 802 3az eee

Energy-Efficient-Ethernet (IEEE 802.3az EEE)

  • In 2005 all Network Interface Controllers (NICs) in the USused 5.3 TWh (600 MW)

  • EEE introduces a Low Power Idle (LPI) sleep signal

    • Transmitter sends LPI in place of Idle for a period Ts to indicate that the link can go to sleep and then stops signaling.

    • Periodically, the transmitter sends a refresh signal for a time Tw so that the link does not remain quiescent for too long.

    • To resume the transmitter sends normal Idlesignals. After a time Tw the link is active.


Computernetze 1 cn13

Computernetze 1 (CN1)

2.3 EthernetFrame Synchronisation


10mb s ethernet manchester code

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

10Mb/s-Ethernet: Manchester Code

"0" = fallende Flanke in Bitmitte (H->L)

"1" = ansteigende Flanke in Bitmitte (L->H)

T=Bitdauer


10mb s ethernet frame synchronisation

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

10Mb/s-Ethernet: Frame-Synchronisation

Frame Start

Bitmitte

  • Präambel bestehend aus einer 1-0-1-0-… Sequenzermöglicht die Synchronisation auf die Bitmitte.

  • Das erste Auftreten von 1-1 kündigt den Start der Nutzdaten an.


Ieee 802 3 ethernet frame pr ambel

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame Präambel

10101010

10101010

10101010

10101010

10101010

10101010

10101010

10101011

7 Bytes

Präambel

1 Byte

SFD

SFD Start-of-Frame Delimiter


Computernetze 1 cn14

Computernetze 1 (CN1)

2.4 Ethernet Media AccessControl (MAC)


Half duplex transmission

Half-Duplex Transmission

  • Historically Ethernet was a half-duplex technology.

  • Using half-duplex, a host could either transmit or receive at one time, but not both.

  • Host checks the network to see whether data is being transmitted before it transmits data.

  • If the network is already in use, the transmission is delayed.

  • Only ONE host can transmit at a time.


Carrier sense multiple access collision detection

Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection

1. Listen to the medium

2. Sending if medium is free, else waiting for a random time and try again

3. The amplitude of the signal increases because a collision occurs.

4. The nodes stop transmitting for a random period of time, which is different for each device.


Csma cd ablaufdiagramm

CSMA/CD Ablaufdiagramm


Csma cd collision handling

CSMA/CD Collision Handling

  • Abortion of current transmission by all stations involved

  • Emission of a Jam-signal (32 bit)

    • to make sure that every station can recognize the collision

    • collision is spread to a minimum length

  • Generation of a random backoff timeout value

    • truncated binary exponential backoff algorithm (the more often a collision occurs the larger is the range for the random number)

  • After expiration of the timeout a retransmission is attempted

  • Number of retransmission trials is limited to 16

    • after 16 collisions in a sequence a error is signaled to the higher layer


Truncated binary exponential backoff algorithm

Runde 1:

t

0

1

t

Runde 2:

0

1

2

3

Truncated Binary Exponential Backoff Algorithm

pcollision = 1 (3 hosts)

t

Runde 0:

0

pcollision = 1 (3 hosts)

pcollision = ¼ (2 hosts)

slot

time


Signalausbreitung auf koaxialkabel

T1

T1

Signalausbreitung auf Koaxialkabel

A

B

C

Lmax, v = 0.2 m/ns

Raum

Collision

T1 = Lmax/v

Late Collision

Tmax = 2T1 = 2Lmax / v

Lmax = vTmax / 2

Zeit


Collision window und kollisionsdom ne

Collision Window und Kollisionsdomäne

  • Worst-Case Betrachtung

    • Um eine Kollision zuverlässig detektieren zu können, muss die minimale Dauer eines Ethernet Frames grösser als die doppelte einfache Signallaufzeit, d.h. dem Round Trip Delay (RTD) sein.

    • Diese maximale Zeit Tmax nennt man Collision Window.

    • 10 Mbit/s und 100 Mbit/s Ethernet definieren eine minimale Frame-Grösse von 512 Datenbits (64 Bytes).

  • Maximale Ausdehnung einer Kollisionsdomäne

    • 10 BASE: Tmax = 512·100 ns = 51.2 μs  Lmax 2000 m

    • 100 BASE: Tmax = 512·10 ns = 5.12 us  Lmax 200 m

    • Werden diese Längen überschritten, können Late Collisions auftreten.


Full duplex transmission

Full-Duplex Transmission

  • Allows transmission of a packet and the reception of a different packet at the same time.

  • Host can transmit immediately without checking the network first.

  • The connection is considered point-to-point and is collision free.

  • Full-duplex Ethernet offers 100% of the bandwidth in both directions.

  • Requires a dedicated connection to a switched port.

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