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Basic Parsing with Context-Free GrammarsPowerPoint Presentation

Basic Parsing with Context-Free Grammars

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Fix depth of search explicitly Rule ordering: non-recursive rules first

Analyzing Linguistic Units

- Morphological parsing:
- analyze words into morphemes and affixes
- rule-based, FSAs, FSTs

- Ngrams for Language Modeling
- POS Tagging
- Syntactic parsing:
- identify constituents and their relationships
- to see if a sentence is grammatical
- to assign an abstract representation of meaning

Syntactic Parsing

- Declarative formalisms like CFGs, FSAs define the legal strings of a language -- but only tell you ‘this is a legal string of the language X’
- Parsing algorithms specify how to recognize the strings of a language and assign each string one (or more) syntactic analyses
- Parsing useful for grammar checking, semantic analysis, MT, QA, information extraction, speech recognition…almost every task in NLP…but…

Parsing as a Form of Search

- Searching FSAs
- Finding the right path through the automaton
- Search space defined by structure of FSA

- Searching CFGs
- Finding the right parse tree among all possible parse trees
- Search space defined by the grammar

- Constraints provided by the input sentence and the automaton or grammar

Parse Tree for ‘Book that flight’ for Prior CFG

S VP NP Nom V Det NBook that flightS NP VP

VP V

S Aux NP VP

PP -> Prep NP

S VP (1)

N book | flight | meal | money

NP Det Nom (3)

V book | include | prefer

NP PropN

Aux does

Nom N Nom

Prep from | to | on

Nom N (4)

PropN Houston | TWA

Nom Nom PP

VP V NP (2)

Rule ExpansionDet that | this | a

LC’s

TopDBotUp

E.g.

Top-Down Parser

- Builds from the root S node to the leaves
- Assuming we build all trees in parallel:
- Find all trees with root S (or all rules w/lhs S)
- Next expand all constituents in these trees/rules
- Continue until leaves are pos
- Candidate trees failing to match pos of input string are rejected (e.g. Book that flight matches only one subtree)

Top-Down Search Space for CFG (expanding only leftmost leaves)

S S S

NP VP Aux NP VP VP

S S S S S S

NP VP NP VP Aux NP VP Aux NP VP VP VP

Det Nom PropN Det Nom PropN V NP V

Det Nom

N

Bottom-Up Parsing

- Parser begins with words of input and builds up trees, applying grammar rules whose rhs match
- Book that flight
N Det N V Det N

Book that flight Book that flight

- ‘Book’ ambiguous (2 pos appear in grammar)
- Parse continues until an S root node reached or no further node expansion possible

- Book that flight

Two Candidates: One Successful Parse

S

VP

VP NP NP

Nom Nom

V Det N V Det N

Book that flight Book that flight

S ~ VP NP

What’s right/wrong with….

- Top-Down parsers – they never explore illegal parses (e.g. which can’t form an S) -- but waste time on trees that can never match the input
- Bottom-Up parsers – they never explore trees inconsistent with input -- but waste time exploring illegal parses (with no S root)
- For both: find a control strategy -- how explore search space efficiently?
- Pursuing all parses in parallel or backtrack or …?
- Which rule to apply next?
- Which node to expand next?

A Possible Top-Down Parsing Strategy

- Depth-first search:
- Agenda of search states: expand search space incrementally, exploring most recently generated state (tree) each time
- When you reach a state (tree) inconsistent with input, backtrack to most recent unexplored state (tree)

- Which node to expand?
- Leftmost or rightmost

- Which grammar rule to use?
- Order in the grammar? How?

Top-Down, Depth-First, Left-Right Strategy

- Initialize agenda with ‘S’ tree and ptr to first word (cur)
- Loop: Until successful parse or empty agenda
- Apply next applicable grammar rule to leftmost unexpanded node (n) of current tree (t) on agenda and push resulting tree (t’) onto agenda
- If n is a POS category and matches the POS of cur, push new tree (t’’) onto agenda and increment cur
- Else pop t’ from agenda

- Final agenda contains history of successful parse

- Apply next applicable grammar rule to leftmost unexpanded node (n) of current tree (t) on agenda and push resulting tree (t’) onto agenda
- Does this flight include a meal?

Fig 10.7

CFG

Left Corners: Top-Down Parsing with Bottom-Up Filtering

- We saw: Top-Down, depth-first, L2R parsing
- Expands non-terminals along the tree’s left edge down to leftmost leaf of tree
- Moves on to expand down to next leftmost leaf…
- Note: In successful parse, current input word will be first word in derivation of node the parser currently processing
- So….look ahead to left-corner of the tree
- B is a left-corner of A if A =*=> Bα
- Build table with left-corners of all non-terminals in grammar and consult before applying rule

Left Recursion vs. Right Recursion

- Depth-first search will never terminate if grammar is left recursive (e.g. NP --> NP PP)

- Solutions:
- Rewrite the grammar (automatically?) to a weakly equivalent one which is not left-recursive
e.g. The man {on the hill with the telescope…}

NP NP PP (wanted: Nom plus a sequence of PPs)

NP Nom PP

NP Nom

Nom Det N

…becomes…

NP Nom NP’

Nom Det N

NP’ PP NP’ (wanted: a sequence of PPs)

NP’ e

- Not so obvious what these rules mean…

- Rewrite the grammar (automatically?) to a weakly equivalent one which is not left-recursive

- Harder to detect and eliminate non-immediate left recursion
- NP --> Nom PP
- Nom --> NP

- NP --> Det Nom
- NP --> NP PP

An Exercise: The city hall parking lot in town

- NP NP NP PP
- NP Det Nom
- NP Adj Nom
- NP Nom Nom
- Nom NP Nom
- Nom N
- PP Prep NP
- N city | hall | lot | town
- Adj parking
- Prep to | for | in

Another Problem: Structural ambiguity

- Multiple legal structures
- Attachment (e.g. I saw a man on a hill with a telescope)
- Coordination (e.g. younger cats and dogs)
- NP bracketing (e.g. Spanish language teachers)

- Solution?
- Return all possible parses and disambiguate using “other methods”

Summing Up

- Parsing is a search problem which may be implemented with many control strategies
- Top-Down or Bottom-Up approaches each have problems
- Combining the two solves some but not all issues

- Left recursion
- Syntactic ambiguity

- Top-Down or Bottom-Up approaches each have problems
- Next time: Making use of statistical information about syntactic constituents
- Read Ch 12

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