Workshop to discuss the feasibility of evolving a mechanism for sustained approach towards Continuous and Integrated Drought Management . Organized by Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi Dated: 21 st September 2007 . V.S.Prakash Director
Organized by Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi
Dated: 21st September 2007
Drought Monitoring Cell
An autonomous body affiliated to Dept., of S&T, Govt., of Karnataka
Karnataka State stands second only to Rajasthan in terms of total area under arid / semi-arid conditions.
No. of Drought Prone Taluks as identified by the Irrigation Commission,1972, GoI : 88 taluks
Drought is a creeping hazard
The Famine code 1950 contemplated that
apart from the failure of rain the following symptoms demand attention as being warnings of possible distress:
The same guidelines were followed in Karnataka up to 2003:
Agricultural drought : Based on dry spell (Agriculture Commission, 1974)Crops require soil moisture of different levels during different growth stages: -initial stage,-crop development stage, -mid-season stage and -late season stage
Guidelines for Agricultural drought : – A Review
Satellite based drought monitoring as a collaborative study with National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), GOI, Hyderabad.
Near Normal (-0.99 to 0.99 with National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), GOI, Hyderabad.)
Severely Dry (-1.99 to -1.50)
Very wet (1.50 to 2.00)
Moderately Wet (1.00 to 1.49)
Moderately Dry (-1.49 to -1.00)Standard Precipitation Index – A case study Kolar
Drought (1998-2004)Present Monitoring System:Taluk as a unit - 176 taluks,Non-Recording/SRRG’s, manual data recording, transmission through fax/ telegram/phone/e-mail/by postVariability with in the taluk is not being capturedProposed Monitoring System :Phase I : Hobli as a unitPhase II :1. Gram Panchayath as a unit – 5200 GP’s, Telemetric, real time data acquisition and transmission2. Color Doppler Weather Radars
Working principle (1998-2004)
SMS is received by remote server
It is decoded and stored in database
Stored rainfall data is sent via SMS
Every tip is measured
The server or any other computer can analyse the data and produce maps and reports
Typical large setup – Drought Monitoring (1998-2004)
Each unit is programmed to send messages sequentially
Central remote server gets messages through the GSM network
Central Server archives data, analyses it and produces reports, graphs, maps etc.
The successive drought situations during 2001- 04 brought issues before the Government which were discussed in the Cabinet Sub Committee.
The short comings in the existing guidelines were realized
New guidelines were formulated, during 2004, for identifying drought affected areas which are being followed by Government of Karnataka since 2004.
The Taluks facing different types of drought are being identified and periodically ted by DMC. In the Taluks experiencing only Hydrological drought, the villages falling under semi-critical, critical and over exploited category preparedness measures required to mitigate drinking water problem.
The assessment of the situation for the Metrological and Agricultural Drought are to be done by considering prevailing situation as on mid of July and reviewed with the progress of the season. In case the Hydrological and Agricultural situation improves by the end of the season, the areas declared as drought affected are to be de-notified.
The Hydrological Drought is assessed at the end of the November month.
CRF/NCCF funds not to be released to the villages falling under semi critical/critical/over exploited categories, wherein growing water intensive crops like paddy and sugarcane are grown using groundwater.
Ground water to be used for irrigating semi dry crops and less water intensive horticulture crops in over exploited areas (area specific crops to be listed).
In the taluks facing hydrological drought, only works related to ground water recharge activities are to be taken up such as nalla bunding, gully plugging, de-silting of ponds/minor irrigation tanks/medium and major reservoirs, construction of percolation ponds, sub-surface dykes, recharge pits, inversion wells, percolation trenches etc.
Cultivation of crops like paddy and sugarcane to be completely banned in groundwater overexploited areas
Sanction of fresh borewells to be taken up strictly under the orders of Deputy Commissioners.
However, permission could be accorded to incur expenditure on pipes, energization, improving well efficiency, pumping efficiency, conveyance efficiency and distribution efficiency.
Small bhandaras to be constructed in the rivers around townships.
During 2nd consecutive year of drought and beyond, storage in surface water bodies falling in ground water over developed areas to be used for ground water recharge and drinking water purposes only. The sluice gate of surface water bodies to be closed during such years.
Efficiency of drinking water schemes to be assessed (well yield characteristics, aquifer capability, water lifting efficiency, distribution efficiency, delivery efficiency etc.) and measures taken to rectify technical and management lacunae.
Total CRF allocation for 2000-2005 to Karnataka the orders of Deputy Commissioners.
as per 11th Finance Commission…………………… 41,204 Lakhs
Central Share of CRF during 2000-05………………. 30,903 Lakhs
NCCF Releases during 2002-05……………………… 57,697 Lakhs
Total money spent by State Govt.
during 2000-05 ………………………….. 1,02,896 Lakhs
Drought is a creeping natural hazard. constraints prevailing in drought monitoring and managementEffective monitoring of Drought Indicators provides tools for decision support system for managing and mitigation of droughtThere is needto bring in more science in to drought monitoring / management / mitigation