EBM approach in writing essays and study proposals. Author: PhDr . Miloslav Klugar, Ph.D. Social Medicine and Medical Ethics Department of Social Medicine and Health Care Policy Office number: 5.087 Office hours: Friday 9:00 – 11: 00 Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
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EBM approach in writing essays and study proposals
PhDr. Miloslav Klugar, Ph.D.
Social Medicine and Medical Ethics
Department of Social Medicine and Health Care Policy
Office number: 5.087
Office hours: Friday 9:00 – 11: 00
Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
Palacky University in Olomouc
…neither alone is enough…
EBM is the “conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about individual patients”.
This means “integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research”
(Sackett et al., 2000, 59)
“I am determined that no matter how much I trust my treating doctors, I want to be assured that the decisions we make together are based on as much evidence as is in existence at the time. I believe that is my fundamental right, and a right of others in a similar situation.” Chris Silagy, 1960-2001
We can summarize the EBMapproach as a five-step model:
The four elements of a well-formed clinical question are:
Patient or problem
Comparison intervention (if appropriate)
P I C O
Write down one recent patient problem
What was the critical question?
At a recent clinic or family or your own ….
a. Root* + Verb: “What causes …”
b. Condition: “… SARS?”
4 (or 3) components:
Patient, problem, or population
Intervention, exposure, or maneuver
Comparison (if relevant)
Clinical Outcomes (including time horizon)
Is donepezil effective in improving cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease?
P= people with Alzheimer’s disease
O= cognitive function,
S= systematic review
Search terms and synonyms:
P= Alzheimer*, dementia, cognitive impairment
I= donepezil, Aricept, cholinesterase inhibitors
O= cognitive function, cognition memory, quality of life…
S= systematic reviews, meta-analysis
Alzheimer ORdonepezil – either term can be present
Alzheimer ANDdonepezil– both terms must be present
To put it bluntly, one's research is only as a good as one's proposal.
Most students' literature reviews suffer from the following problems: