3. Roman Republic
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3. Roman Republic a. Human and physical geography b. Contributions—law (Twelve - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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3. Roman Republic a. Human and physical geography b. Contributions—law (Twelve Tables), architecture, literature, roads, bridges. Suggested Documents: Hammurabi’s Code, Hebrew law, the Twelve Tables of Rome ( http://members.aol.com/pilgri mjon /private/LEX/12tables.html ), the

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  • 3. Roman Republic

  • a. Human and physical

  • geography

  • b. Contributions—law (Twelve

  • Tables), architecture, literature,

  • roads, bridges

  • Suggested Documents: Hammurabi’s

  • Code, Hebrew law, the Twelve Tables of

  • Rome (http://members.aol.com/pilgri

  • mjon/private/LEX/12tables.html), the

  • Golden Rule, The Odyssey, Ptolemaic

  • maps

Human and physical geography
Human and physical geography

  • Built on seven rolling hills on a curve in the Tiber River near the center of the Italian Peninsula.

  • Located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea (very ideal for trade)

  • The Latins built the original settlement at Rome but competed with Greeksand the Etruscansfor control.

The roman republic
The Roman Republic

  • After King Tarquin the Proud (a harsh tyrant) was driven from power, the Romans declared they would never again be ruled by a king.

  • Instead they established a Republicin which citizens have the right to vote for their leaders or representatives.

  • A group called the patricians(wealthy landowners) held most of the power.

  • The plebeians(the middle and lower classes) were citizens and allowed to vote for their representatives but were barred from holding most government offices.

  • Women did not hold full citizenship but did enjoy some legal rights such and owning land and willing that land to whomever they wished.

Twelve tables
Twelve Tables

  • Plebeians were able to force the creation of a law code called the Twelve Tables.

  • These laws protected the plebeians from the patricians who often made laws that suited themselves.

  • They were carved on twelve tablets (or tables) and hung in the forum. They became the basis for all Roman law.

Roman expansion
Roman Expansion

  • All Roman landownerswere required to serve time in the military.

  • The military was skillful and well organized.

  • Over time the Romans conquered the entire Italian peninsula.

  • Leniencytoward conquered enemies allowed Rome to build a long lasting empire.

Julius caesar
Julius Caesar

  • One successful military leader named Julius Caesar had gained popularity in Rome by fighting hard with his men.

  • Feeling threatened by this popularity a consul named Pompey urged the senate to order Caesar to disband his army and return home.

  • Instead Caesar returned with his army and drove out his political rivals.

  • In 44 B.C. Caesar was named dictator for life.

  • Caesar made many reforms that increased his popularity with the people.

  • Concerned that Caesar was becoming a tyrant senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius assassinated Caesar by stabbing him in the senate chamber.

Pax romana

  • After many years of instability with one leader after another being killed and replaced Rome finally found stability.

  • A man named Octavious assumed the title Augustus or “exalted one”.

  • The leadership of Augustus lead to a period of peace and prosperity in Rome known as the PaxRomana

R oads

  • Trade using common currency drove the Roman economy.

  • They traded all over the Mediterranean taking advantage of their central location.

  • They also took advantage of a vast network of roads that were originally built for military travel.

Roman architecture
Roman Architecture

  • Use of archesin bridges, aqueductsand even in the Coliseum.

  • Modern stadiums are still modeled after the Coliseum.

Roman gods
Roman Gods

  • Romans were polytheists.

  • They worshipped gods such as Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.

Early christianity
Early Christianity

  • Around 26 B.C. a Jew named Jesusbegan to preach traditional Jewish ideas such as monotheism and the 10 commandments.

  • He stressed the importance of an individual’s relationship with God and claimed to be the son of God (the Messiah).

  • As some began to call Jesus the messiahRoman’s and Jews became threatened by his popularity.

  • The chief priests of the Jews denied that he was the messiah and said his teachings were blasphemy.

  • After preaching in Jerusalemthe Roman governor Pontius Pilate accused Jesus of defying the authority of Rome and had him arrested and crucified.

  • After this crucifixion it is said that he was resurrected 3 days later. His apostlesthen spread his message and Christianity had been born.


  • Philosophy and literature modeled after the Greeks.

  • Virgiltakes ten years to write epic called Aeneidwhich he wrote to praise Rome and it’s virtues.

The fall of rome
The Fall of Rome

  • Many factors led to the fall of the Roman empire including…

    • many economic problems

    • Growing division between the wealthy and poor.

    • Hostility from tribes outside of the empire.

    • Instability in the government and military.

    • Weakening nationalism.

Legacy of r ome
Legacy of Rome

  • The mixing of Hellenistic and Roman cultures created a new culture called Greco-Roman culture.

  • Western civilizations including the United States still use Greco-Roman ideas including…

    • A republican form of government

    • The legal system

    • Architecture