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Unit 2: Study of Matter. You may already know why ice floats. Ironically, if the ice was “dry,” it would sink. What explains that?. Unit 2 Objectives.

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Unit 2: Study of Matter

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Unit 2: Study of Matter

You may already know why ice floats. Ironically, if the ice was “dry,” it would sink. What explains that?

Unit 2 Objectives

  • Definitions: matter, element, compound, mixture, (chemical) symbol, heterogeneous, homogeneous, metal, nonmetal, metalloid, physical change, chemical change, nuclear change, Laws of conservation, exothermic, endothermic, Kinetic Molecular Theory, real gas, ‘ideal’ gas, change of state, phase diagram, triple point, critical point.

  • Differentiate between elements, compounds, and mixtures.

  • Arrange a matter hierarchy.

  • Identify chemical symbols for elements.

  • Separate mixtures physically.

  • Differentiate between hetero- and homogeneous mixtures.

  • Sepearate metallic, nonmetallic, and metalloid elements.

  • Determine the physical and chemical properties of a substance.

  • Distinguish chemical and physical properties from chemical and physical changes.

  • Perform calculations using the Law of Definite Composition.

Unit 2 Objectives Pt.2

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) is based on the idea that particles in matter are always in motion.

  • The KMT can be applied to describe properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

  • Boiling, metling, freezing are among the physical processes that can alter a substances state.

  • How to interpret a phase diagram.

  • Identify the triple point and critical point.

  • (EFS D4) To use systems thinking and systems tools to identify patterns, impacts, and relationships between a product’s life cycle and the health of the system as a whole. Embed their understanding of the Materials cycle principle in their work.

  • (EFS D5) Articulate how human choices regarding consumption, production, distribution, and disposal of material goods affect our ability to thrive over time.

Essential Questions

  • How do the types of substances – elements and compounds – differ?

  • How do the states of matter differ according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory?


  • What are the characteristics of elements and compounds?

  • Why can’t a compound be separated by physical means?

  • What are the different categories of elements?

  • How do the properties of the general types of elements compare?

  • What are the characteristics of mixtures?

  • What physical means are used to separate mixtures?

  • What are the distinctions between matter and energy?

  • Why are chemical and physical properties important?

  • What is the importance of the Laws of Conservation of Matter and Energy and Definite Composition?

  • How are physical, chemical, and nuclear changes distinguished?

  • What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter?

  • How can the theory be used to describe matter?

  • How does a ‘real’ gas differ from an ‘ideal’ gas?

  • What is a change of state?

  • What occurs when a substance undergoes a change of state?

  • What is a phase diagram and how is it interpreted?

Your Take

  • Lasers (P1)

  • Does “empty” space have matter?

  • Antimatter

  • Lava Lamps

  • What is fire? (P4)

  • Black holes and matter

  • How much matter (atoms) is in our bodies?

  • What atoms are allowed to touch each other?

  • How do you split an atom?

  • Different colored lightbulbs (P6)

  • Where did the name “matter” come from?

  • Do we actually “touch” anything?

  • Invisible Ink (P7)

  • Glow in the dark stuff

  • Dark matter

Castagno Chemistry Challenge II

  • Rules:

    • 1) Do NOT help anyone else.

    • 2) You have a maximum of 10 minutes to complete the challenge.

    • 3) Credit only goes to COMPLETELY correct answers

    • 1st – 2pts, 2nd – 1pt, 3rd – 0pts, 4th – 0pts

    • Questions?

The Challenge

  • Organize the matter hierarchy.

What Is Matter?

  • As defined in Unit 1, matter is “anything that has mass and occupies space (volume)”

  • There are 3 visible in this picture, sort of.

Classification of


Can it be separated?




Pure substances

Is the composition uniform?

Can it be decomposed by ordinary chemical means?





Homogeneous Mixtures

Heterogeneous mixtures





  • A mixture is a combination of two or more substances.

  • Substances can be elements or compounds.

  • Mixture can be easy to identify or not.

Solid - Solid

  • Jewelry alloys

  • Rocks

Solid - Liquid

  • Iced Tea

  • Chocolate Milk

  • Aka Powdered-drink mixes


  • Liquid mixture

  • Vinegar and other household liquids

Liquid - Solid

  • Mercury in Silver dental amalgam (filling)

Liquid - Gas

  • Fog

Gas – Liquid

  • Carbonated-


Gas – Gas

  • Atmosphere

Mixtures II – Separation Anxiety

  • Mixtures can be separated physically

    • Filters – based on particle size

    • Distillation – based on boiling point

    • Centrifuge – based on density


Homogeneous Mixtures

  • Uniformity throughout the entire mixture.


Heterogeneous Mixtures

  • Easy to identify different materials within the sample.

    • Different colors stand out

    • Different densities settle into layers


Pure Substances

  • FIXED composition

    • Each sample (like salt) has the same

      • Composition (make-up)

      • Characteristics (color, density, etc.)



  • Composed of chemically bonded atoms of different elements

    • Individual Molecules (water)

    • Ionic crystals (salt)


Elements (I)

  • A pure substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances.

Elements (II) – Symbols

  • Every element is abbreviated with a symbol

    • Saves space on a periodic table

    • Makes writing formulas much easier

  • Some are common or make sense

    • C – carbon

    • Al – aluminum

  • But some seem very out of place…

Elements (III) – Symbols (II)

  • Challenge #2 – Thou fhouldethputeththynenotebookf away.

  • Medieval Matching Game

Elements (IV) - Identification

  • Challenge #3 – Notebooks away!

    • The rare back-to-back challenge!

  • Can you identify the elements as metallic, nonmetallic, metalloid, or the single, very special, undecided one?

Elements Examples

  • 1) Worlds largest gold bar, 250kg

    • Estimated worth (9/30/13): $10,663,679 ($42.53/g)

  • 2) The Hope Diamond (carbon)

    • Estimated worth: $350,000,000 ($38,461,538/g)

  • 3) Chunks of Boron

    • Estimated worth: $11.14/g (pure)

Elements (V) - Metals

  • As challenge #3 revealed, the majority of elements are metallic.

  • Typical properties associated with them

    • Conductors of heat and electricity

    • Malleable (sheets, foils)

    • Ductile (wires)

Elements (VI) – Nonmetals

  • The second largest category of elements are nonmetallic

  • “Opposite” properties of the metals

    • Poor conductors of heat and electricity

    • Brittle

      • Typically break instead of flatten into sheets or wires

  • Of course, most nonmetals are gases so how can you flatten a gas anyway?

Elements (VIII) – Metalloids

  • Just a few elements, located on the “staircase,” have intermediate properties.

    • Less malleable than metals

    • Less brittle than nonmetals

    • Semiconductors

      • Not as conductive as a metal, more conductive than a nonmetal

Elements (IX) – Specialty

  • Hydrogen!

    • Typically non-metallic with all associated properties

    • However, it is believed to behave as a metal inside the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.

    • This metallic form helps explain the massive magnetic fields those planets have.


Check Yourself

  • Challenge #4 - Notebooks away!

  • Class Quiz

The Grand Unified States of Matter

  • The extremely rare double back-to-back Challenge #5 – Notebooks out!

  • Describe as much as possible of the 4 examples of matter located on the desks in the classroom.

States of Matter

  • So we know there are 4 states of matter but do any others exist?

  • Fundamental (4)

    • Solid, liquid, gas, plasma

  • Non-classical (8*)

    • Glass, plastic crystal, liquid crystal, magnetically ordered (ferro-, antiferro, ferri- magnet), Copolymers, Quantum spin liquids

  • Low-Temperature States (7*)

    • Superfluid, Bose-Einstein Condensate, Fermionic condensate, Rydberg molecule, Quantum Hall State, Strange matter (quark), Photonic matter (formed September 2013)

  • High Energy States (3*)

    • Quark-gluon plasma, color-glass condensate, gravitational singularity (VERY high energy)

  • Other proposed states (6*)

    • Degenerate matter, supersolid, string-net liquid, superglass, dark matter, equilibrium gel

  • Total: 4 + 8 + 7 + 3 + 6 = 28 (source: wikipedia…)

Kinetic Molecular Theory

  • Every state of matter, from the “normal” to the strange, have one thing in common:

  • Manner of definition

  • Each state of manner is defined by the movement of the particles within.

Kinetic Molecular Theory II

  • The KMT is what describes the movement

  • It can be applied specifically to each state of matter


  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory has 5 distinct points for gases

    • 1) Individual particles are far apart relative to their size

    • 2) Collisions between particles and containers are elastic (no energy loss)

    • 3) Particles are in constant motion

    • 4) No forces of attraction between particles

    • 5) Temperature of the gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles

Gas II

  • Steam and smoke are good examples.

  • The KMT describes

    • 1) Indefinite shape (only containers define the shape)

    • 2) Indefinite volume (any amount “fills” a container)


  • 3) Low density &

  • 4) High compressibility

    • Gas particles are very far apart

  • 5) Fluidity

    • Gas particles always moving

Gas IV

  • 6) Expansion (Gas tanks)

    • Volume can grow

  • 7) Diffusion (Scented candle)

    • Spreading through an area

  • 8) Effusion (flat tire)

    • Escape tiny opening


  • What explains solids always keeping their shape?

    • 1) Specific, repeating pattern of atom arrangement

    • 2) Particles vibrate in position

Solid II

  • Lack of movement explains

    • 1) Definite volume

    • 2) Definite shape

    • 3) Incompressibility

  • Close arrangement results in

    • 4) Typically high density (solid v liquid v gas of the same substance)


  • Unlike solids, liquids particles are not in fixed positions

    • They do remain fairly close together

  • This allows a liquid to take any shape

Liquid II

  • Shifting positions explains

    • Fluidity, Indefinite shape

  • Closeness of particles means

    • Definite volume

    • Still fairly dense (usually less so than the solid, water is an exception)

    • Relatively incompressible


  • Typical properties of a gas except most/all particles are ionized (charged)

  • Extremely common, albeit temporarily seen on Earth

St. Elmo’s Fire*

  • A weather phenomenon typically produced during thunderstorms.

  • There needs to be a

    sustained imbalance

    Of electric energy

    often found in places

    we would consider

    a ‘lightning rod.’

  • When a limit is,

    reached, the energy

    is discharged into

    the glow of ‘fire.’

STOP! In the name of conservation!

  • Challenge #6 – Notebooks closed!

  • There are two major “laws” (among many) that we encounter in this class.

  • What are they?

Conservation of Matter

  • In chemical reactions, matter cannot be created nor destroyed.

  • 20g of reactants will form a minimum and maximum of 20g product.

Conservation of Energy

  • The amount of energy present in a system will remain constant.

  • The energy present could cause a change, such as melting of an ice cube, but overall energy is conserved.


  • Challenge #7 – Notebooks away!

  • There are 6 changes of state between solid, liquid, and gas.

  • Name the transition AND the associated change (ie: L -> G)


  • The characteristics of substances are known as “properties”




Physical Properties

  • Can be described by sight or feel…

    • Color

    • Texture

  • …or measured without changing the substance’s identity

    • Melting/Freezing Point,

    • Boiling Point

    • Density

Physical Changes

  • When a substance changes form but not identity

    • Crush

    • Tear

    • Rip

    • Boil

    • Freeze

    • Condense

    • Melt

    • Sublimate

    • Deposit


Chemical Properties

  • Ability of a substance to undergo change to form a new substance

    • Aka identity changes

  • Cannot be determined by simply “looking” at the substance

Chemical Changes

  • The substance undergoing a transformation into a new substance(s)

  • Adding sodium to water causes this 


Physical and Chemical Change

  • Physical Change

    • The substance changes form

      • Melt, Boil, Freeze, Condense, Sublimate, Deposit, Crushed, Torn, Smashed

  • Chemical Change

    • The substance changes identity

      • React, Burn, Oxidize, Reduce

Phase Diagrams

  • Challenge #8.1 – Notebooks away!

  • Describe what is happening from

    • A to B

    • B to C

    • C to D

    • D to E

    • E to F

Phase Diagrams Challenge 8.1

Phase Diagrams

  • Challenge #8.2 – Notebooks away!

  • Describe what is happening from

    • A to B

    • B to C

    • C to D

    • D to E

    • E to F

Phase Diagrams Challenge 8.2

Phase Diagrams Challenge Answers

  • 8.1

    • A to B = solid heating

    • B to C = melting

    • C to D = liquid heating

    • D to E = boiling

    • E to F = vapor heating

  • 8.2

    • A to B = vapor cooling

    • B to C = condensing

    • C to D = liquid cooling

    • D to E = freezing

    • E to F = solid cooling

Phase Diagram - Cooling

  • A cool curve is a graph which shows the temperature of a substance decreasing over time.

  • Phase changes that occur during this process are

    • Condensing

    • Freezing

Phase Diagram – Cooling II

  • Phase changes occur during segments of no temperature change






Phase Diagram – Cooling III

  • Condensing (Gas to Liquid)

    • The process of a gas becoming a liquid

    • Requires a LOSS of energy (cooling)

  • Freezing (Liquid to Solid)

    • The process of a liquid becoming a solid

    • Requires a LOSS of energy (cooling)

Phase Diagram - Heating

  • A heating curve is a graph which shows the temperature of a substance increasing over time.

  • Phase changes that occur during this process are

    • Melting

    • Boiling

Phase Diagram – Heating II

  • Phase changes occur during segments of no temperature change






Phase Diagram – Heating III

  • Melting (Solid to Liquid)

    • The process of a solid becoming a liquid

    • Requires a GAIN of energy (heating)

  • Boiling (Liquid to Gas)

    • The process of a liquid becoming a gas

    • Requires a GAIN of energy (heating)

Phase Diagram - Review

  • Whether heating (L) or cooling (R), CHANGES IN STATE occur on the FLAT LINES

    • Boiling/Condensing – higher

    • Melting/Freezing – lower





Phase Diagram - Y

  • Challenge #9 – Notebooks away!

Phase Diagram - Y

  • Label

    • X, Y, Z, D, and E

    • X  Z?

    • Z  X?

    • X  Y?

    • Y  X?

    • Y  Z?

    • Z  Y?

Phase Diagram - Y

  • Label

    • X = Solid

    • Y = Liquid

    • Z = Gas

    • D = Triple Point

    • E = Critical Point

    • X  Z = sublimation

    • Z  X = deposition

    • X  Y = melting

    • Y  X = freezing

    • Y  Z = boiling

    • Z  Y = condensation

Phase Diagram – Y II

  • Area “X” is always a solid

  • Area “Y” is always a liquid

  • Area “Z” is always a gas

  • On the line = both (equilibrium)

  • Critical Point = liquid state cannot exist beyond this temperature

  • Triple Point = all 3 states of matter in equilibrium

Phase Diagram – Y III

  • Sublimation (Solid to gas)

    • The process of a solid becoming a gas by SKIPPING the liquid state

    • Requires a GAIN of energy (heating)

  • Deposition (Gas to Solid)

    • The process of a gas becoming a solid by SKIPPING the liquid state

    • Requires a LOSS of energy (cooling)

  • Note: Since the Y-diagram is a pressure/temperature comparison, ANY change can occur by simply altering the pressure.

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