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1

H

94

21

81

93

49

91

31

90

71

39

41

70

68

2

85

10

50

80

109

46

108

97

38

98

99

78

65

66

47

22

28

58

63

59

60

107

26

64

3

67

12

103

4

102

101

88

56

24

27

20

25

86

14

23

15

35

16

17

82

9

84

54

52

34

8

6

83

51

29

33

7

30

106

5

32

105

18

36

37

89

57

19

72

74

11

75

76

77

104

55

44

42

87

41

79

48

43

13

45

Es

Md

No

Sg

F

Ar

Te

Gd

Dy

Cf

Th

Pu

Np

Pa

Lu

Yb

Er

Ho

Tb

Cl

Po

Bk

Rf

Re

La

Eu

Pb

Tc

N

Mt

Bi

Hg

O

Se

As

Ac

Sb

Hs

Nb

Mo

Ru

Rh

Ir

Os

W

Bh

Hf

Db

Nd

Cs

Ce

Zn

Y

Cu

Zr

B

P

Ni

Ca

Pr

Fr

Sn

Be

Pt

Ra

Ge

C

Na

Sr

K

Fe

Si

Ti

Al

Ba

Ga

Ag

Ne

Li

Kr

Xe

Rn

At

Br

V

Lr

Cd

He

Mg

Sc

Mn

Co

Cr

Tl

S

Pd

In

Au

Rb

53

I

73

Ta

62

61

69

Sm

Pm

Tm

96

100

92

95

Cm

Fm

U

Am

Select an element

(

)

= Internet link

Other Physical DATA


Printable periodic tables
Printable Periodic Tables

Click on the element symbol to download the PDF file.

Click

Here

All of the following tables are in Acrobat PDF format. To view and print these files, you will need to install the free Adobe Acrobat Reader program on your computer. The program can be downloaded from the Adobe Website.

http://www.sciencegeek.net/index.html


Groups of elements
Groups of Elements

1A

8A

1A

5A

Nitrogen group

Alkali metals

H

1

2A

6A

He

2

Alkaline earth metals

Oxygen group

1

1

2A

7A

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

Halogens

Transition metals

3A

8A

Noble gases

Boron group

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

2

4A

Carbon group

Hydrogen

Inner transition metals

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

3

8B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

1B

2B

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

*

6

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

W

7

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

*

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

W


Groups of elements1
Groups of Elements

H

1

He

2

1

1

IA

IIA

IIIB

IVB

VB

VIB

VIIB

VIIIB

IB

IIB

IIIA

IVA

VA

VIA

VIIA

VIIIA

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Alkali metals

Halogens

2

2

Other non-metals

Alkaline earth metals

Lanthanides

Transition metals

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

Other metals

Actinides

3

3

Noble gases

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

*

6

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

W

7

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

*

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

W


Wikipedia

Printable

Periodic

Table

Elements listed Alphabetically


Periodic table
Periodic Table

8A

Alkali metals

1A

Alkaline earth metals

He

2

H

1

Transition metals

1

1

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

2A

Boron group

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Li

3

Be

4

Nonmetals

2

2

Noble gases

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

3

3

8B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

1B

2B

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

4

4

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

5

5

At

85

Rn

86

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

6

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

7

7

Lanthanoid Series

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

6

Solid

C

Actinoid Series

Liquid

Br

7

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

Gas

H


Dutch periodic table
Dutch Periodic Table

118

117

116

115

114

113

112

111

110

109

108

107

106

Strong, Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989, page 743


Chinese periodic table
Chinese Periodic Table

http://www.limestone.on.ca/ibuild/davies/chinesept.html






Discovering the periodic table

1894-1918

Ancient Times

H

He

Midd. -1700

1923-1961

1965-

1735-1843

1843-1886

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Discovering the Periodic Table

Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989


Metals and nonmetals

Metalloids

Metals and Nonmetals

H

1

He

2

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Nonmetals

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

METALS

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103


Diatomic elements
Diatomic Elements

H2

He

Ne

Li

O2

F2

N2

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl2

S

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br2

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I2

Tl

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Alkali metals group 1
Alkali Metals, Group 1

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Alkaline earth metals group 2
Alkaline Earth Metals, Group 2

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Halogens group 17
Halogens, Group 17

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Noble gases group 18
Noble Gases, Group 18

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Chalcogens group 16
Chalcogens, Group 16

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Pnicogens group 15
Pnicogens, Group 15

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Lanthanide series
Lanthanide Series

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

La

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


Actinide series
Actinide Series

H

He

Ne

Li

O

F

N

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

La

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

La

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


hydrogen

poor metals

alkali metals

nonmetals

alkaline earth metals

noble gases

transition metals

rare earth metals

H

1

He

2

H

1

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

http://www.elementsdatabase.com/


The periodic table

Uun

110

Uuu

111

Uub

112

Uuq

113

Uuh

116

Uuo

118

The Periodic Table

Noble

gases

Alkaline

earth metals

Halogens

1

18

H

1

He

2

2

13

14

15

16

17

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

Transition metals

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

Alkali metals

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

Cs

55

Ba

56

*

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

Fr

87

Ra

88

Y

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

* Lanthanides

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

Y Actinides


Orbitals being filled
Orbitals Being Filled

1

8

Groups

2

1s

1

3 4 5 6 7

1s

2s

2

2p

3s

3p

3

4p

3d

Periods

4s

4

4d

5p

5s

5

La

5d

6p

6

6s

Ac

6d

7

7s

4f

Lanthanide series

5f

Actinide series

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 345


Electron filling in periodic table
Electron Filling in Periodic Table

s

s

p

1

2

d

3

4

5

*

6

W

7

f

*

W


Metallic characteristic
Metallic Characteristic

metallic character increases

nonmetallic character increases

metallic character increases

nonmetallic character increases


Periodic table1
Periodic Table

s

s

H

1

He

2

H

1

p

1

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

d

3

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

*

6

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

W

7

7

f

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

*

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

W


Melting points
Melting Points

H

-259.2

He

-269.7

Mg

650

1

1

Symbol

Melting point oC

Li

180.5

Be

1283

B

2027

C

4100

N

-210.1

O

-218.8

F

-219.6

Ne

-248.6

2

2

> 3000 oC

2000 - 3000 oC

Na

98

Mg

650

Al

660

Si

1423

P

44.2

S

119

Cl

-101

Ar

-189.6

3

3

K

63.2

Ca

850

Sc

1423

Ti

1677

V

1917

Cr

1900

Mn

1244

Fe

1539

Co

1495

Ni

1455

Cu

1083

Zn

420

Ga

29.78

Ge

960

As

817

Se

217.4

Br

-7.2

Kr

-157.2

4

4

Rb

38.8

Sr

770

Y

1500

Zr

1852

Nb

2487

Mo

2610

Tc

2127

Ru

2427

Rh

1966

Pd

1550

Ag

961

Cd

321

In

156.2

Sn

231.9

Sb

630.5

Te

450

I

113.6

Xe

-111.9

5

5

Cs

28.6

Ba

710

La

920

Hf

2222

Ta

2997

W

3380

Re

3180

Os

2727

Ir

2454

Pt

1769

Au

1063

Hg

-38.9

Tl

303.6

Pb

327.4

Bi

271.3

Po

254

At

Rn

-71

6

6

Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry , 1999, page 1999


Densities of elements
Densities of Elements

H

0.071

He

0.126

1

1

Li

0.53

Be

1.8

B

2.5

C

2.26

N

0.81

O

1.14

F

1.11

Ne

1.204

2

2

Na

0.97

Mg

1.74

Al

2.70

Si

2.4

P

1.82w

S

2.07

Cl

1.557

Ar

1.402

3

3

K

0.86

Ca

1.55

Sc

(2.5)

Ti

4.5

V

5.96

Cr

7.1

Mn

7.4

Fe

7.86

Co

8.9

Ni

8.90

Cu

8.92

Zn

7.14

Ga

5.91

Ge

5.36

As

5,7

Se

4.7

Br

3.119

Kr

2.6

4

4

Rb

1.53

Sr

2.6

Y

5.51

Zr

6.4

Nb

8.4

Mo

10.2

Tc

11.5

Ru

12.5

Rh

12.5

Pd

12.0

Ag

10.5

Cd

8.6

In

7.3

Sn

7.3

Sb

6.7

Te

6.1

I

4.93

Xe

3.06

5

5

Cs

1.90

Ba

3.5

La

6.7

Hf

13.1

Ta

16.6

W

19.3

Re

21.4

Os

22.48

Ir

22.4

Pt

21.45

Au

19.3

Hg

13.55

Tl

11.85

Pb

11.34

Bi

9.8

Po

9.4

At

---

Rn

4.4

6

6

8.0 – 11.9 g/cm3

12.0 – 17.9 g/cm3

> 18.0 g/cm3

Mg

1.74

Symbol

Density in g/cm3C, for gases, in g/L

W


Electronegativities

H

2.1

Li

1.0

Be

1.5

B

2.0

C

2.5

N

3.0

O

3.5

F

4.0

Na

0.9

Mg

1.2

Al

1.5

Si

1.8

P

2.1

S

2.5

Cl

3.0

K

0.8

Ca

1.0

Sc

1.3

Ti

1.5

V

1.6

Cr

1.6

Mn

1.5

Fe

1.8

Co

1.8

Ni

1.8

Cu

1.9

Zn

1.7

Ga

1.6

Ge

1.8

As

2.0

Se

2.4

Br

2.8

Rb

0.8

Sr

1.0

Y

1.2

Zr

1.4

Nb

1.6

Mo

1.8

Tc

1.9

Ru

2.2

Rh

2.2

Pd

2.2

Ag

1.9

Cd

1.7

In

1.7

Sn

1.8

Sb

1.9

Te

2.1

I

2.5

*

Cs

0.7

Ba

0.9

La

1.1

Hf

1.3

Ta

1.5

W

1.7

Re

1.9

Os

2.2

Ir

2.2

Pt

2.2

Au

2.4

Hg

1.9

Tl

1.8

Pb

1.8

Bi

1.9

Po

2.0

At

2.2

y

Fr

0.7

Ra

0.9

Ac

1.1

*

Lanthanides: 1.1 - 1.3

y

Actinides: 1.3 - 1.5

Below 1.0

2.0 - 2.4

1.0 - 1.4

2.5 - 2.9

1.5 - 1.9

3.0 - 4.0

Electronegativities

1A

8A

1

1

3A

5A

7A

2A

4A

6A

2

2

3

3

2B

4B

6B

8B

1B

3B

5B

7B

Period

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2nd Edition, page 373


Electron Filling in Periodic Table

s

s

s

s

H

1s1

He

1s2

H

1s1

p

p

1

1

Li

2s1

Be

2s2

B

2p1

C

2p2

N

2p3

O

2p4

F

2p5

Ne

2p6

2

2

Na

3s1

Mg

3s2

Al

3p1

Si

3p2

P

3p3

S

3p4

Cl

3p5

Ar

3p6

d

d

3

3

K

4s1

Ca

4s2

Sc

3d1

Ti

3d2

V

3d3

Cr

3d5

Mn

3d5

Fe

3d6

Co

3d7

Ni

3d8

Cu

3d10

Zn

3d10

Ga

4p1

Ge

4p2

As

4p3

Se

4p4

Br

4p5

Kr

4p6

4

4

Rb

5s1

Sr

5s2

Y

4d1

Zr

4d2

Nb

4d4

Mo

4d5

Tc

4d6

Ru

4d7

Rh

4d8

Pd

4d10

Ag

4d10

Cd

4p1

In

5p1

Sn

5p2

Sb

5p3

Te

5p4

I

5p5

Xe

5p6

5

5

Cs

6s1

Ba

6s2

Hf

5d2

Ta

5d3

W

5d4

Re

5d5

Os

5d6

Ir

5d7

Pt

5d9

Au

5d10

Hg

5d10

Tl

6p1

Pb

6p2

Bi

6p3

Po

6p4

At

6p5

Rn

6p6

*

*

6

6

Fr

7s1

Ra

7s2

Rf

6d2

Db

6d3

Sg

6d4

Bh

6d5

Hs

6d6

Mt

6d7

W

W

7

7

f

f

La

5d1

Ce

4f2

Pr

4f3

Nd

4f4

Pm

4f5

Sm

4f6

Eu

4f7

Gd

4f7

Tb

4f9

Dy

4f10

Ho

4f11

Er

4f12

Tm

4f13

Yb

4f14

Lu

4f114

*

*

Ac

6d1

Th

6d2

Pa

5f2

U

5f3

Np

5f4

Pu

5f6

Am

5f7

Cm

5f7

Bk

5f8

Cf

5f10

Es

5f11

Fm

5f14

Md

5f13

No

5f14

Lr

5f14

W

W


Atomic radii

= 1 Angstrom

0.88 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.64

1.52 1.11

1.86 1.60

1.43 1.17 1.10 1.04 0.99

2.31 1.97

1.22 1.22 1.21 1.17 1.14

1.62 1.40 1.41 1.37 1.33

2.44 2.15

2.62 2.17

1.71 1.75 1.46

Atomic Radii

IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA

Li

Be

C

N

O

B

F

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

K

Ca

Ge

As

Se

Br

Ga

Rb

Sr

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Cs

Ba

Pb

Tl

Bi


Atomic radii of representative elements nm
Atomic Radii of Representative Elements (nm)

1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A

Li

Be

C

N

O

B

F

0.088 0.077 0.070 0.066 0.064

0.1.52 0.111

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

0.186 0.160

0.143 0.117 0.110 0.104 0.099

K

Ca

Ge

As

Se

Br

Ga

0.231 0.197

0.122 0.122 0.121 0.117 0.114

Rb

Sr

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

0.162 0.140 0.141 0.137 0.133

0.244 0.215

Cs

Ba

At

Pb

Tl

Po

Bi

0.262 0.217

0.171 0.175 0.146 0.140 0.140

LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 175


Atomic radii1

IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA

N3-

Li1+

Be2+

Li

O2-

F1-

= 1 Angstrom

Be

C

N

O

B

F

0.88 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.64

1.71 1.40 1.36

1.52 1.11

0.60 0.31

Na

Na1+

Mg2+

S2-

Cl1-

Al3+

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

0.95 0.65

1.86 1.60

0.50 1.84 1.81

1.43 1.17 1.10 1.04 0.99

K

Ca

Se2-

Br1-

Ge

As

Se

Br

Ga

Ga3+

K1+

Ca2+

2.31 1.97

1.33 0.99

1.22 1.22 1.21 1.17 1.14

0.62 1.98 1.85

Rb

Sr

Te2-

I1-

In

In3+

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Rb1+

Sr2+

1.62 1.40 1.41 1.37 1.33

0.81 2.21 2.16

2.44 2.15

1.48 1.13

Cs

Ba

Pb

Tl

Tl3+

Cs1+

Bi

Ba2+

2.62 2.17

1.69 1.35

0.95

1.71 1.75 1.46

= 1 Angstrom

Atomic Radii

Ionic Radii

IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA


Ionization energies
Ionization Energies VA VIA VIIA

18

Group 1

H

1312

He

2372

Symbol

First Ionization Energy

(kJ/mol)

Mg

738

1

1

13

15

17

2

14

16

Li

520

Be

900

B

801

C

1086

N

1402

O

1314

F

1681

Ne

2081

2

2

Na

496

Mg

738

Al

578

Si

787

P

1012

S

1000

Cl

1251

Ar

1521

3

3

12

4

6

8

9

10

11

3

5

7

Period

K

419

Ca

590

Sc

633

Ti

659

V

651

Cr

653

Mn

717

Fe

762

Co

760

Ni

737

Cu

746

Zn

906

Ga

579

Ge

762

As

947

Se

941

Br

1140

Kr

1351

4

4

Rb

403

Sr

550

Y

600

Zr

640

Nb

652

Mo

684

Tc

702

Ru

710

Rh

720

Pd

804

Ag

731

Cd

868

In

558

Sn

709

Sb

834

Te

869

I

1008

Xe

1170

5

5

*

Cs

376

Ba

503

La

538

Hf

659

Ta

761

W

770

Re

760

Os

839

Ir

878

Pt

868

Au

890

Hg

1007

Tl

589

Pb

716

Bi

703

Po

812

At

--

Rn

1038

6

6

y

Uuu

--

Uub

--

Uut

--

Uuq

--

Uup

--

Uuo

--

Fr

--

Ra

509

Ac

490

Rf

--

Db

--

Sg

--

Bh

--

Hs

--

Mt

--

Ds

--

7

*

Ce

534

Pr

527

Nd

533

Pm

536

Sm

545

Eu

547

Gd

592

Tb

566

Dy

573

Ho

581

Er

589

Tm

597

Yb

603

Lu

523

Lanthanide series

y

Th

587

Pa

570

U

598

Np

600

Pu

585

Am

578

Cm

581

Bk

601

Cf

608

Es

619

Fm

627

Md

635

No

642

Lr

--

Actinide series


First ionization energies in kilojoules per mole
First Ionization Energies VA VIA VIIA(in kilojoules per mole)

H

1312.1

He

2372.5

Li

520.3

Be

899.5

B

800.7

C

1086.5

N

1402.4

O

1314.0

F

1681.1

Ne

2080.8

Na

495.9

Mg

737.8

Al

577.6

Si

786.5

P

1011.8

S

999.7

Cl

1251.2

Ar

1520.6

K

418.9

Ca

589.9

Ga

578.6

Ge

761.2

As

946.5

Se

940.7

Br

1142.7

Kr

1350.8

Rb

402.9

Sr

549.2

In

558.2

Sn

708.4

Sb

833.8

Te

869.0

I

1008.7

Xe

1170.3

Smoot, Price, Smith, Chemistry A Modern Course1987, page 188


First ionization energies kj mol
First Ionization Energies VA VIA VIIA(kJ/mol)

s

p

H

1312.1

He

2372.5

Li

520.3

Be

899.5

B

800.7

C

1086.5

N

1402.4

O

1314.0

F

1681.1

Ne

2080.8

Na

495.9

Mg

737.8

Al

577.6

Si

786.5

P

1011.8

S

999.7

Cl

1251.2

Ar

1520.6

K

418.9

Ca

589.9

Ga

578.6

Ge

761.2

As

946.5

Se

940.7

Br

1142.7

Kr

1350.8

Rb

402.9

Sr

549.2

In

558.2

Sn

708.4

Sb

833.8

Te

869.0

I

1008.7

Xe

1170.3

Smoot, Price, Smith, Chemistry A Modern Course1987, page 188


Ionization energies kj mol

Shaded area on table denotes core electrons. VA VIA VIIA

Ionization Energies (kJ/mol)

3rd

6910

7730

2740

3220

2905

3375

3850

3945

4th

9540

10,600

11,600

4350

4950

4565

5160

5770

Element

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

1st

498

736

577

787

1063

1000

1255

1519

2nd

4560

1445

1815

1575

1890

2260

2295

2665

5th

13,400

13,600

15,000

16,100

6270

6950

6560

7320

6th

16,600

18,000

18,310

19,800

21,200

8490

9360

8780

Herron, Frank, Sarquis, Sarquis, Cchrader, Kulka, Chemistry 1996, Heath, page


Ionization energies kj mol1

Shaded area on table denotes core electrons. VA VIA VIIA

Ionization Energies (kJ/mol)

3rd

6910

7730

2740

3220

2905

3375

3850

3945

4th

9540

10,600

11,600

4350

4950

4565

5160

5770

Element

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

1st

498

736

577

787

1063

1000

1255

1519

2nd

4560

1445

1815

1575

1890

2260

2295

2665

5th

13,400

13,600

15,000

16,100

6270

6950

6560

7320

6th

16,600

18,000

18,310

19,800

21,200

8490

9360

8780

Herron, Frank, Sarquis, Sarquis, Cchrader, Kulka, Chemistry 1996, Heath, page


Essential elements
Essential Elements VA VIA VIIA

Elements in organic matter

H

1

He

2

Major minerals

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Trace elements

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

Cs

55

Ba

56

La

57

Hf

72

Ta

72

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 748


Oxidation state of elements

H VA VIA VIIA+

Li+

Be2+

Na+

Mg2+

K+

Ca2+

Rb+

Sr2+

Cs+

Ba2+

Oxidation State of Elements

18

Group 1

N

OB

L

E

G

A

S

E

S

1

1

13

15

17

2

14

16

N3-

O2-

F1-

2

2

Al3+

S2-

Cl1-

Transition metals

3

3

Period

Zn2+

Se2-

Br1-

4

4

Ag1+

Te2-

I1-

5

5

6

6


Orbitals Being Filled VA VIA VIIA

1

8

Groups

2

3 4 5 6 7

F1-

Li1+

Be2+

O2-

Cl1-

Na1+

Te2-

Al3+

S2-

Br1-

K1+

Te2-

Zn2+

Ga3+

Se2-

I1-

Rb1+

Te2-

Ag1+

In3+

Te2-

Transition metals form cations

with various charges.

Cs1+

Te2-


Summary of periodic trends
Summary of Periodic Trends VA VIA VIIA

Shielding is constant

Atomic radius decreases

Ionization energy increases

Electronegativity increases

Nuclear charge increases

1A

0

Nuclear charge increases

Shielding increases

Atomic radius increases

Ionic size increases

Ionization energy decreases

Electronegativity decreases

5A

2A

3A

4A

6A

7A

Ionic size (cations) Ionic size (anions)

decreases decreases


H VA VIA VIIA

1

He

2

H

1

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103


1 VA VIA VIIA

H

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

N

Name: Hydrogen Symbol: H Atomic Number: 1 Atomic Mass: 1.00794 amu Melting Point: -259.14 °C (14.009985 °K, -434.45203 °F) Boiling Point: -252.87 °C (20.280005 °K, -423.166 °F)

What is Hydrogen?

Colorless, odorless gaseous chemical element. Lightest and most abundant element in the universe. Present in water and in all organic compounds. Chemically reacts with most elements. Discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1776.

Electron Configuration

H = 1s1


2 VA VIA VIIA

He

Helium

Helium

N

pslawinski, metal-halide.net

Name: Helium Symbol: He Atomic Number: 2 Atomic Mass: 4.002602 amu Melting Point: -272.0 °C (1.15 °K, -457.6 °F) Boiling Point: -268.6 °C (4.549994 °K, -451.48 °F)

What is Helium?

Colorless, odorless gaseous nonmetallic element. Belongs to group 18 of the periodic table. Lowest boiling point of all elements and can only be solidified under pressure. Chemically inert, no known compounds. Discovered in the solar spectrum in 1868 by Lockyer.

Electron Configuration

He = 1s2


3 VA VIA VIIA

Li

Lithium

Lithium

N

Name: Lithium Symbol: Li Atomic Number: 3 Atomic Mass: 6.941 amu Melting Point: 180.54 °C (453.69 °K, 356.972 °F) Boiling Point: 1347.0 °C (1620.15 °K, 2456.6 °F)

What is Lithium?

Socket silvery metal. First member of group 1 of the periodic table. Lithium salts are used in psychomedicine.

Electron Configuration

Li = 1s22s1


4 VA VIA VIIA

Be

Beryllium

Beryllium

N

Name: Beryllium Symbol: Be Atomic Number: 4 Atomic Mass: 9.012182 amu Melting Point: 1278.0 °C (1551.15 °K, 2332.4 °F) Boiling Point: 2970.0 °C (3243.15 °K, 5378.0 °F)

What is Beryllium?

Grey metallic element of group 2 of the periodic table. Is toxic and can cause severe lung diseases and dermatitis. Shows high covalent character. It was isolated independently by F. Wohler and A.A. Bussy in 1828.

Electron Configuration

Be = 1s22s2


5 VA VIA VIIA

B

Boron

Boron

N

Name: Boron Symbol: B Atomic Number: 5 Atomic Mass: 10.811 amu Melting Point: 2300.0 °C (2573.15 °K, 4172.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2550.0 °C (2823.15 °K, 4622.0 °F)

What is Boron?

An element of group 13 of the periodic table. There are two allotropes, amorphous boron is a brown power, but metallic boron is black. The metallic form is hard (9.3 on Mohs' scale) and a bad conductor in room temperatures. It is never found free in nature. Boron-10 is used in nuclear reactor control rods and shields. It was discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and by J.L. Gay-Lussac and L.J. Thenard.

Electron Configuration

B = 1s22s22p1


6 VA VIA VIIA

C

Carbon

Carbon

N

Name: Carbon Symbol: C Atomic Number: 6 Atomic Mass: 12.0107 amu Melting Point: 3500.0 °C (3773.15 °K, 6332.0 °F) Boiling Point: 4827.0 °C (5100.15 °K, 8720.6 °F)

What is Carbon?

Carbon is a member of group 14 of the periodic table. It has three allotropic forms of it, diamonds, graphite and fullerite. Carbon-14 is commonly used in radioactive dating. Carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. Carbon has the interesting chemical property of being able to bond with itself, and a wide variety of other elements.

Electron Configuration

C = 1s22s22p2


7 VA VIA VIIA

N

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

N

Name: Nitrogen Symbol: N Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Mass: 14.00674 amu Melting Point: -209.9 °C (63.250008 °K, -345.81998 °F) Boiling Point: -195.8 °C (77.35 °K, -320.44 °F)

Link

What is Nitrogen?

Colorless, gaseous element which belongs to group 15 of the periodic table. Constitutes ~78% of the atmosphere and is an essential part of the ecosystem. Nitrogen for industrial purposes is acquired by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Chemically inactive, reactive generally only at high temperatures or in electrical discharges. It was discovered in 1772 by D. Rutherford.

Electron Configuration

N = 1s22s22p3


8 VA VIA VIIA

O

Oxygen

Oxygen

N

Name: Oxygen Symbol: O Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Mass: 15.9994 amu Melting Point: -218.4 °C (54.75 °K, -361.12 °F) Boiling Point: -183.0 °C (90.15 °K, -297.4 °F)

What is Oxygen?

A colorless, odorless gaseous element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is the most abundant element present in the earth's crust. It also makes up 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. For industrial purposes, it is separated from liquid air by fractional distillation. It is used in high temperature welding, and in breathing. It commonly comes in the form of Oxygen, but is found as Ozone in the upper atmosphere. It was discovered by Priestley in 1774.

Electron Configuration

O = 1s22s22p4


9 VA VIA VIIA

F

Fluorine

Fluorine

N

Name: Fluorine Symbol: F Atomic Number: 9 Atomic Mass: 18.998404 amu Melting Point: -219.62 °C (53.53 °K, -363.316 °F) Boiling Point: -188.14 °C (85.01 °K, -306.652 °F)

What is Fluorine?

A poisonous pale yellow gaseous element belonging to group 17 of the periodic table (The halogens). It is the most chemically reactive and electronegative element. It is highly dangerous, causing severe chemical burns on contact with flesh. Fluorine was identified by Scheele in 1771 and first isolated by Moissan in 1886.

Electron Configuration

F = 1s22s22p5


10 VA VIA VIIA

Ne

Neon

Neon

N

pslawinski, wikipedia.org

Name: Neon Symbol: Ne Atomic Number: 10 Atomic Mass: 20.1797 amu Melting Point: -248.6 °C (24.549994 °K, -415.48 °F) Boiling Point: -246.1 °C (27.049994 °K, -410.98 °F)

What is Neon?

Colorless gaseous element of group 18 on the periodic table (noble gases). Neon occurs in the atmosphere, and comprises 0.0018% of the volume of the atmosphere. It has a distinct reddish glow when used in discharge tubes and neon based lamps. It forms almost no chemical compounds. Neon was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsey and M.W. Travers.

Electron Configuration

Ne = 1s22s22p6


11 VA VIA VIIA

Na

Sodium

Sodium

N

Name: Sodium Symbol: Na Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Mass: 22.98977 amu Melting Point: 97.8 °C (370.95 °K, 208.04001 °F) Boiling Point: 552.9 °C (826.05005 °K, 1027.2201 °F)

What is Sodium?

Soft silvery reactive element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). It is highly reactive, oxidizing in air and reacting violently with water, forcing it to be kept under oil. It was first isolated by Humphrey Davy in 1807.

Electron Configuration

Na = 1s22s22p63s1


12 VA VIA VIIA

Mg

Magnesium

Magnesium

N

Name: Magnesium Symbol: Mg Atomic Number: 12 Atomic Mass: 24.305 amu Melting Point: 650.0 °C (923.15 °K, 1202.0 °F) Boiling Point: 1107.0 °C (1380.15 °K, 2024.6 °F)

Link

What is Magnesium?

Silvery metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table (alkaline-earth metals). It is essential for living organisms, and is used in a number of light alloys. Chemically very reactive, it forms a protective oxide coating when exposed to air and burns with an intense white flame. It also reacts with sulphur, nitrogen and the halogens. First isolated by Bussy in 1828.

Electron Configuration

Mg = 1s22s22p63s2


13 VA VIA VIIA

Al

Aluminum

Aluminum

N

Name: Aluminum Symbol: Al Atomic Number: 13 Atomic Mass: 26.981539 amu Melting Point: 660.37 °C (933.52 °K, 1220.666 °F) Boiling Point: 2467.0 °C (2740.15 °K, 4472.6 °F)

What is Aluminum?

Silvery-white lustrous metallic element of group 3 of the periodic table. Highly reactive but protected by a thin transparent layer of the oxide which quickly forms in air. There are many alloys of aluminum, as well as a good number of industrial uses. Makes up 8.1% of the Earth's crust, by weight. Isolated in 1825 by H.C. Oersted.

Electron Configuration

Al = 1s22s22p63s23p1


14 VA VIA VIIA

Si

Silicon

Silicon

N

Name: Silicon Symbol: Si Atomic Number: 14 Atomic Mass: 28.0855 amu Melting Point: 1410.0 °C (1683.15 °K, 2570.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2355.0 °C (2628.15 °K, 4271.0 °F)

Link

What is Silicon?

Metalloid element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. It is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, making up 25.7% of it by weight. Chemically less reactive than carbon. First identified by Lavoisier in 1787 and first isolated in 1823 by Berzelius.

Electron Configuration

Si = 1s22s22p63s23p2


15 VA VIA VIIA

P

Phosphorus

Phosphorus

N

Name: Phosphorus Symbol: P Atomic Number: 15 Atomic Mass: 30.97376 amu Melting Point: 44.1 °C (317.25 °K, 111.38 °F) Boiling Point: 280.0 °C (553.15 °K, 536.0 °F)

What is Phosphorus?

Non-metallic element belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Has a multiple allotropic forms. Essential element for living organisms. It was discovered by Brandt in 1669.

Electron Configuration

P = 1s22s22p63s23p3


16 VA VIA VIIA

S

Sulfur

Sulfur

N

Name: Sulfur Symbol: S Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Mass: 32.066 amu Melting Point: 112.8 °C (385.95 °K, 235.04001 °F) Boiling Point: 444.6 °C (717.75 °K, 832.28 °F)

What is Sulfur?

Yellow, nonmetallic element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is an essential element in living organisms, needed in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, and hence in many proteins. Absorbed by plants from the soil as sulfate ion.

Electron Configuration

S = 1s22s22p63s23p4


17 VA VIA VIIA

Cl

Chlorine

Chlorine

N

Name: Chlorine Symbol: Cl Atomic Number: 17 Atomic Mass: 35.4527 amu Melting Point: -100.98 °C (172.17 °K, -149.764 °F) Boiling Point: -34.6 °C (238.55 °K, -30.279997 °F)

What is Chlorine?

Halogen element. Poisonous greenish-yellow gas. Occurs widely in nature as sodium chloride in seawater. Reacts directly with many elements and compounds, strong oxidizing agent. Discovered by Karl Scheele in 1774. Humphrey David confirmed it as an element in 1810.

Electron Configuration

Cl = 1s22s22p63s23p5


18 VA VIA VIIA

Ar

Argon

Argon

N

pslawinski, wikipedia.org

Name: Argon Symbol: Ar Atomic Number: 18 Atomic Mass: 39.948 amu Melting Point: -189.3 °C (83.85 °K, -308.74 °F) Boiling Point: -186.0 °C (87.15 °K, -302.8 °F)

What is Argon?

Monatomic noble gas. Makes up 0.93% of the air. Colorless, odorless. Is inert and has no true compounds. Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsey identified argon in 1894.

Electron Configuration

Ar = 1s22s22p63s23p6


19 VA VIA VIIA

K

Potassium

Potassium

N

Name: Potassium Symbol: K Atomic Number: 19 Atomic Mass: 39.0983 amu Melting Point: 63.65 °C (336.8 °K, 146.57 °F) Boiling Point: 774.0 °C (1047.15 °K, 1425.2 °F)

Link

What is Potassium?

Soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). Occurs naturally in seawater and a many minerals. Highly reactive, chemically, it resembles sodium in its behavior and compounds. Discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807.

Electron Configuration

K = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s1


20 VA VIA VIIA

Ca

Calcium

Calcium

N

Name: Calcium Symbol: Ca Atomic Number: 20 Atomic Mass: 40.078 amu Melting Point: 839.0 °C (1112.15 °K, 1542.2 °F) Boiling Point: 1484.0 °C (1757.15 °K, 2703.2 °F)

What is Calcium?

Soft grey metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table. Used a reducing agent in the extraction of thorium, zirconium and uranium. Essential element for living organisms.

Electron Configuration

Ca = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s2


21 VA VIA VIIA

Sc

Scandium

Scandium

N

Name: Scandium Symbol: Sc Atomic Number: 21 Atomic Mass: 44.95591 amu Melting Point: 1539.0 °C (1812.15 °K, 2802.2 °F) Boiling Point: 2832.0 °C (3105.15 °K, 5129.6 °F)

What is Scandium?

Rare soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 3 of the periodic table. There are ten isotopes, nine of which are radioactive and have short half-lives. Predicted in 1869 by Mendeleev, isolated by Nilson in 1879.

Electron Configuration

Sc = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d1


22 VA VIA VIIA

Ti

Titanium

Titanium

N

Name: Titanium Symbol: Ti Atomic Number: 22 Atomic Mass: 47.867 amu Melting Point: 1660.0 °C (1933.15 °K, 3020.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3287.0 °C (3560.15 °K, 5948.6 °F)

What is Titanium?

White metallic transition element. Occurs in numerous minerals. Used in strong, light corrosion-resistant alloys. Forms a passive oxide coating when exposed to air. First discovered by Gregor in 1789.

Electron Configuration

Ti = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d2


23 VA VIA VIIA

V

Vanadium

Vanadium

N

Name: Vanadium Symbol: V Atomic Number: 23 Atomic Mass: 50.9415 amu Melting Point: 1890.0 °C (2163.15 °K, 3434.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3380.0 °C (3653.15 °K, 6116.0 °F)

What is Vanadium?

Soft and ductile, bright white metal. Good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily about 933K. There are two naturally occurring isotopes of vanadium, and 5 radioisotopes, V-49 having the longest half-life at 337 days. Vanadium has nuclear applications, the foil is used in cladding titanium to steel, and vanadium-gallium tape is used to produce a superconductive magnet. Originally discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio of Mexico City in 1801. His discovery went unheeded, however, and in 1820, Nils Gabriel Sefstron of Sweden rediscovered it. Metallic vanadium was isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in 1867. The name vanadium comes from Vanadis, a goddess of Scandinavian mythology. Silvery-white metallic transition element. Vanadium is essential to ascidians. Rats and chickens are also known to require it. Metal powder is a fire hazard, and vanadium compounds should be considered highly toxic. May cause lung cancer if inhaled.

Electron Configuration

V = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d3


24 VA VIA VIIA

Cr

Chromium

Chromium

N

Name: Chromium Symbol: Cr Atomic Number: 24 Atomic Mass: 51.9961 amu Melting Point: 1857.0 °C (2130.15 °K, 3374.6 °F) Boiling Point: 2672.0 °C (2945.15 °K, 4841.6 °F)

Link

What is Chromium?

Hard silvery transition element. Used in decorative electroplating. Discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin.

Electron Configuration

Cr = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s13d5


25 VA VIA VIIA

Mn

Manganese

Manganese

N

Name: Manganese Symbol: Mn Atomic Number: 25 Atomic Mass: 54.93805 amu Melting Point: 1245.0 °C (1518.15 °K, 2273.0 °F) Boiling Point: 1962.0 °C (2235.15 °K, 3563.6 °F)

What is Manganese?

Grey brittle metallic transition element. Rather electropositive, combines with some non-metals when heated. Discovered in 1774 by Scheele.

Electron Configuration

Mn = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d5


26 VA VIA VIIA

Fe

Iron

Iron

N

Name: Iron Symbol: Fe Atomic Number: 26 Atomic Mass: 55.845 amu Melting Point: 1535.0 °C (1808.15 °K, 2795.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2750.0 °C (3023.15 °K, 4982.0 °F)

What is Iron?

Silvery malleable and ductile metallic transition element. Has nine isotopes and is the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust. Required by living organisms as a trace element (used in hemoglobin in humans.) Quite reactive, oxidizes in moist air, displaces hydrogen from dilute acids and combines with nonmetallic elements.

Electron Configuration

Fe = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d6


27 VA VIA VIIA

Co

Cobalt

Cobalt

N

Name: Cobalt Symbol: Co Atomic Number: 27 Atomic Mass: 58.9332 amu Melting Point: 1495.0 °C (1768.15 °K, 2723.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2870.0 °C (3143.15 °K, 5198.0 °F)

What is Cobalt?

Light grey transition element. Some meteorites contain small amounts of metallic cobalt. Generally alloyed for use. Mammals require small amounts of cobalt salts. Cobalt-60, an artificially produced radioactive isotope of Cobalt is an important radioactive tracer and cancer-treatment agent. Discovered by G. Brandt in 1737.

Electron Configuration

Co = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d7


28 VA VIA VIIA

Ni

Nickel

Nickel

N

Name: Nickel Symbol: Ni Atomic Number: 28 Atomic Mass: 58.6934 amu Melting Point: 1453.0 °C (1726.15 °K, 2647.4 °F) Boiling Point: 2732.0 °C (3005.15 °K, 4949.6 °F)

Link

What is Nickel?

Malleable ductile silvery metallic transition element. Discovered by A.F. Cronstedt in 1751.

Electron Configuration

Ni = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d8


29 VA VIA VIIA

Cu

Copper

Copper

N

Name: Copper Symbol: Cu Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Mass: 63.546 amu Melting Point: 1083.0 °C (1356.15 °K, 1981.4 °F) Boiling Point: 2567.0 °C (2840.15 °K, 4652.6 °F)

Link

What is Copper?

Red-brown transition element. Known by the Romans as 'cuprum.' Extracted and used for thousands of years. Malleable, ductile and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. When in moist conditions, a greenish layer forms on the outside.

Electron Configuration

Cu = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s13d10


30 VA VIA VIIA

Zn

Zinc

Zinc

N

Name: Zinc Symbol: Zn Atomic Number: 30 Atomic Mass: 65.39 amu Melting Point: 419.58 °C (692.73 °K, 787.24396 °F) Boiling Point: 907.0 °C (1180.15 °K, 1664.6 °F)

What is Zinc?

Blue-white metallic element. Occurs in multiple compounds naturally. Five stable isotopes are six radioactive isotopes have been found. Chemically a reactive metal, combines with oxygen and other non-metals, reacts with dilute acids to release hydrogen.

Electron Configuration

Zn = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d10


31 VA VIA VIIA

Ga

Gallium

Gallium

N

Foobar, wikipedia.org

Name: Gallium Symbol: Ga Atomic Number: 31 Atomic Mass: 69.723 amu Melting Point: 29.78 °C (302.93 °K, 85.604004 °F) Boiling Point: 2403.0 °C (2676.15 °K, 4357.4 °F)

What is Gallium?

Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to group 13 of the periodic table. The two stable isotopes are Ga-69 and Ga-71. Eight radioactive isotopes are known, all having short half-lives. Gallium Arsenide is used as a semiconductor. Corrodes most other metals by diffusing into their lattice. First identified by Francois Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875.

Electron Configuration

Ga = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p1


32 VA VIA VIIA

Ge

Germanium

Germanium

N

Name: Germanium Symbol: Ge Atomic Number: 32 Atomic Mass: 72.61 amu Melting Point: 937.4 °C (1210.55 °K, 1719.3201 °F) Boiling Point: 2830.0 °C (3103.15 °K, 5126.0 °F)

What is Germanium?

Lustrous hard metalloid element, belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Forms a large number of organometallic compounds. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871, it was actually found in 1886 by Winkler.

Electron Configuration

Ge = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p2


33 VA VIA VIIA

As

Arsenic

Arsenic

N

Name: Arsenic Symbol: As Atomic Number: 33 Atomic Mass: 74.9216 amu Melting Point: 817.0 °C (1090.15 °K, 1502.6 °F) Boiling Point: 613.0 °C (886.15 °K, 1135.4 °F)

What is Arsenic?

Metalloid element of group 15. There are three allotropes, yellow, black, and grey. Reacts with halogens, concentrated oxidizing acids and hot alkalis. Albertus Magnus is believed to have been the first to isolate the element in 1250.

Electron Configuration

As = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p3


34 VA VIA VIIA

Se

Selenium

Selenium

N

Name: Selenium Symbol: Se Atomic Number: 34 Atomic Mass: 78.96 amu Melting Point: 217.0 °C (490.15 °K, 422.6 °F) Boiling Point: 684.9 °C (958.05005 °K, 1264.8201 °F)

What is Selenium?

Metalloid element, belongs to group 16 of the periodic table. Multiple allotropic forms exist. Chemically resembles sulfur. Discovered in 1817 by Jons J. Berzelius.

Electron Configuration

Se = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p4


35 VA VIA VIIA

Br

Bromine

Bromine

N

RTC, wikipedia.org

Name: Bromine Symbol: Br Atomic Number: 35 Atomic Mass: 79.904 amu Melting Point: -7.2 °C (265.95 °K, 19.04 °F) Boiling Point: 58.78 °C (331.93 °K, 137.804 °F)

What is Bromine?

Halogen element. Red volatile liquid at room temperature. Its reactivity is somewhere between chlorine and iodine. Harmful to human tissue in a liquid state, the vapor irritates eyes and throat. Discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard.

Electron Configuration

Br = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p5


36 VA VIA VIIA

Kr

Krypton

Krypton

N

Name: Krypton Symbol: Kr Atomic Number: 36 Atomic Mass: 83.8 amu Melting Point: -157.2 °C (115.950005 °K, -250.95999 °F) Boiling Point: -153.4 °C (119.75001 °K, -244.12 °F)

What is Krypton?

Colorless gaseous element, belongs to the noble gases. Occurs in the air, 0.0001% by volume. It can be extracted from liquid air by fractional distillation. Generally not isolated, but used with other inert gases in fluorescent lamps. Five natural isotopes, and five radioactive isotopes. Kr-85, the most stable radioactive isotope, has a half-life of 10.76 years and is produced in fission reactors. Practically inert, though known to form compounds with fluorine.

Electron Configuration

Kr = 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p6


37 VA VIA VIIA

Rb

Rubidium

Rubidium

N

Name: Rubidium Symbol: Rb Atomic Number: 37 Atomic Mass: 85.4678 amu Melting Point: 38.89 °C (312.04 °K, 102.002 °F) Boiling Point: 688.0 °C (961.15 °K, 1270.4 °F)

What is Rubidium?

Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to group 1 of the periodic table. Rb-97, the naturally occurring isotope, is radioactive. It is highly reactive, with properties similar to other elements in group 1, like igniting spontaneously in air. Discovered spectroscopically in 1861 by W. Bunsen and G.R. Kirchoff.

Rb = [Kr]5s1


38 VA VIA VIIA

Sr

Strontium

Strontium

N

Name: Strontium Symbol: Sr Atomic Number: 38 Atomic Mass: 87.62 amu Melting Point: 769.0 °C (1042.15 °K, 1416.2 °F) Boiling Point: 1384.0 °C (1657.15 °K, 2523.2 °F)

What is Strontium?

Soft yellowish metallic element, belongs to group 2 of the periodic table. Highly reactive chemically. Sr-90 is present in radioactive fallout and has a half-life of 28 years. Discovered in 1798 by Klaproth and Hope, isolated in 1808 by Humphry Davy.

Sr = [Kr]5s2


39 VA VIA VIIA

Y

Yttrium

Yttrium

N

Name: Yttrium Symbol: Y Atomic Number: 39 Atomic Mass: 88.90585 amu Melting Point: 1523.0 °C (1796.15 °K, 2773.4 °F) Boiling Point: 3337.0 °C (3610.15 °K, 6038.6 °F)

What is Yttrium?

Silvery-grey metallic element of group 3 on the periodic table. Found in uranium ores. The only natural isotope is Y-89, there are 14 other artificial isotopes. Chemically resembles the lanthanoids. Stable in the air below 400 degrees, Celsius. Discovered in 1828 by Friedrich Wohler.

Y = [Kr]5s24d1


40 VA VIA VIIA

Zr

Zirconium

Zirconium

N

Name: Zirconium Symbol: Zr Atomic Number: 40 Atomic Mass: 91.224 amu Melting Point: 1852.0 °C (2125.15 °K, 3365.6 °F) Boiling Point: 4377.0 °C (4650.15 °K, 7910.6 °F)

What is Zirconium?

Grey-white metallic transition element. Five natural isotopes and six radioactive isotopes are known. Used in nuclear reactors for a neutron absorber. Discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth, isolated in 1824 by Berzelius.

Zr = [Kr]5s24d2


41 VA VIA VIIA

Nb

Niobium

Niobium

N

Name: Niobium Symbol: Nb Atomic Number: 41 Atomic Mass: 92.90638 amu Melting Point: 2468.0 °C (2741.15 °K, 4474.4 °F) Boiling Point: 4927.0 °C (5200.15 °K, 8900.6 °F)

What is Niobium?

Soft, ductile grey-blue metallic transition element. Used in special steels and in welded joints to increase strength. Combines with halogens and oxidizes in air at 200 degrees Celsius. Discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801 and isolated by Blomstrand in 1864. Called columbium originally.

Nb = [Kr]5s14d5


42 VA VIA VIIA

Mo

Molybdenum

Molybdenum

N

Name: Molybdenum Symbol: Mo Atomic Number: 42 Atomic Mass: 95.94 amu Melting Point: 2617.0 °C (2890.15 °K, 4742.6 °F) Boiling Point: 4612.0 °C (4885.15 °K, 8333.6 °F)

What is Molybdenum?

Silvery-white, hard metallic transition element. It is chemically unreactive and is not affected by most acids. It oxidizes at high temperatures. There are seven natural isotopes, and four radioisotopes, Mo-93 being the most stable with a half-life of 3500 years. Molybdenum is used in almost all high-strength steels, it has nuclear applications, and is a catalyst in petroleum refining. Discovered in 1778 by Carl Welhelm Scheele of Sweden. Impure metal was prepared in 1782 by Peter Jacob Hjelm.

Mo = [Kr]5s14d5


43 VA VIA VIIA

Tc

Technetium

Technetium

N

Name: Technetium Symbol: Tc Atomic Number: 43 Atomic Mass: (98.0) amu Melting Point: 2200.0 °C (2473.15 °K, 3992.0 °F) Boiling Point: 4877.0 °C (5150.15 °K, 8810.6 °F)

What is Technetium?

Radioactive metallic transition element. Can be detected in some stars and the fission products of uranium. First made by Perrier and Segre by bombarding molybdenum with deutrons, giving them Tc-97. Tc-99 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 2.6x106 years. Sixteen isotopes are known. Organic technetium compounds are used in bone imaging. Chemical properties are intermediate between rhenium and manganese.

Tc = [Kr]5s24d5


44 VA VIA VIIA

Ru

Ruthenium

Ruthenium

N

Name: Ruthenium Symbol: Ru Atomic Number: 44 Atomic Mass: 101.07 amu Melting Point: 2250.0 °C (2523.15 °K, 4082.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3900.0 °C (4173.15 °K, 7052.0 °F)

What is Ruthenium?

Hard white metallic transition element. Found with platinum, used as a catalyst in some platinum alloys. Dissolves in fused alkalis, and is not attacked by acids. Reacts with halogens and oxygen at high temperatures. Isolated in 1844 by K.K. Klaus.

Ru = [Kr]5s14d7


45 VA VIA VIIA

Rh

Rhodium

Rhodium

N

Name: Rhodium Symbol: Rh Atomic Number: 45 Atomic Mass: 102.9055 amu Melting Point: 1966.0 °C (2239.15 °K, 3570.8 °F) Boiling Point: 3727.0 °C (4000.15 °K, 6740.6 °F)

What is Rhodium?

Silvery white metallic transition element. Found with platinum and used in some platinum alloys. Not attacked by acids, dissolves only in aqua regia. Discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston.

Rh = [Kr]5s14d8


46 VA VIA VIIA

Pd

Palladium

Palladium

N

Name: Palladium Symbol: Pd Atomic Number: 46 Atomic Mass: 106.42 amu Melting Point: 1552.0 °C (1825.15 °K, 2825.6 °F) Boiling Point: 2927.0 °C (3200.15 °K, 5300.6 °F)

What is Palladium?

Soft white ductile transition element. Found with some copper and nickel ores. Does not react with oxygen at normal temperatures. Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid. Discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston.

Pd = [Kr]4d10


47 VA VIA VIIA

Ag

Silver

Silver

N

Name: Silver Symbol: Ag Atomic Number: 47 Atomic Mass: 107.8682 amu Melting Point: 961.93 °C (1235.08 °K, 1763.474 °F) Boiling Point: 2212.0 °C (2485.15 °K, 4013.6 °F)

What is Silver?

White lustrous soft metallic transition element. Found in both its elemental form and in minerals. Used in jewelry, tableware and so on. Less reactive than silver, chemically.

Ag = [Kr]5s14d10


48 VA VIA VIIA

Cd

Cadmium

Cadmium

N

Name: Cadmium Symbol: Cd Atomic Number: 48 Atomic Mass: 112.411 amu Melting Point: 320.9 °C (594.05 °K, 609.62 °F) Boiling Point: 765.0 °C (1038.15 °K, 1409.0 °F)

What is Cadmium?

Soft bluish metal belonging to group 12 of the periodic table. Extremely toxic even in low concentrations. Chemically similar to zinc, but lends itself to more complex compounds. Discovered in 1817 by F. Stromeyer.

Cd = [Kr]5s24d10


49 VA VIA VIIA

In

Indium

Indium

N

Name: Indium Symbol: In Atomic Number: 49 Atomic Mass: 114.818 amu Melting Point: 156.61 °C (429.76 °K, 313.898 °F) Boiling Point: 2000.0 °C (2273.15 °K, 3632.0 °F)

What is Indium?

Soft silvery element belonging to group 13 of the periodic table. The most common natural isotope is In-115, which has a half-life of 6x104 years. Five other radioisotopes exist. Discovered in 1863 by Reich and Richter.

In = [Kr]5s24d105p1


50 VA VIA VIIA

Sn

Tin

Tin

N

Name: Tin Symbol: Sn Atomic Number: 50 Atomic Mass: 118.71 amu Melting Point: 231.9 °C (505.05 °K, 449.41998 °F) Boiling Point: 2270.0 °C (2543.15 °K, 4118.0 °F)

What is Tin?

Silvery malleable metallic element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. Twenty-six isotopes are known, five of which are radioactive. Chemically reactive. Combines directly with chlorine and oxygen and displaces hydrogen from dilute acids.

Sn = [Kr]5s24d105p2


51 VA VIA VIIA

Sb

Antimony

Antimony

N

Name: Antimony Symbol: Sb Atomic Number: 51 Atomic Mass: 121.76 amu Melting Point: 630.0 °C (903.15 °K, 1166.0 °F) Boiling Point: 1750.0 °C (2023.15 °K, 3182.0 °F)

What is Antimony?

Element of group 15. Multiple allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metal. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, and rubber. Attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. First reported by Tholden in 1450.

Sb = [Kr]5s24d105p3


52 VA VIA VIIA

Te

Tellurium

Tellurium

N

Name: Tellurium Symbol: Te Atomic Number: 52 Atomic Mass: 127.6 amu Melting Point: 449.5 °C (722.65 °K, 841.1 °F) Boiling Point: 989.8 °C (1262.95 °K, 1813.64 °F)

What is Tellurium?

Silvery metalloid element of group 16. Eight natural isotopes, nine radioactive isotopes. Used in semiconductors and to a degree in some steels. Chemistry is similar to sulfur. Discovered in 1782 by Franz Miller.

Te = [Kr]5s24d105p4


53 VA VIA VIIA

I

Iodine

Iodine

N

Name: Iodine Symbol: I Atomic Number: 53 Atomic Mass: 126.90447 amu Melting Point: 113.5 °C (386.65 °K, 236.3 °F) Boiling Point: 184.0 °C (457.15 °K, 363.2 °F)

What is Iodine?

Dark violet nonmetallic element, belongs to group 17 of the periodic table. Insoluble in water. Required as a trace element for living organisms. One stable isotope, I-127 exists, in addition to fourteen radioactive isotopes. Chemically the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive metallic halogen. Discovered in 1812 by Courtois.

I = [Kr]5s24d105p5


54 VA VIA VIIA

Xe

Xenon

Xenon

Name: Xenon Symbol: Xe Atomic Number: 54 Atomic Mass: 131.29 amu Melting Point: -111.9 °C (161.25 °K, -169.42 °F) Boiling Point: -108.1 °C (165.05 °K, -162.58 °F)

pslawinski, wikipedia.org

What is Xenon?

Colorless, odorless gas belonging to group 18 on the periodic table (the noble gases.) Nine natural isotopes and seven radioactive isotopes are known. Xenon was part of the first noble-gas compound synthesized. Several others involving Xenon have been found since then. Xenon was discovered by Ramsey and Travers in 1898.

Xe = [Kr]5s24d105p6


55 VA VIA VIIA

Cs

Cesium

Cesium

N

Name: Cesium Symbol: Cs Atomic Number: 55 Atomic Mass: 132.90546 amu Melting Point: 28.5 °C (301.65 °K, 83.3 °F) Boiling Point: 678.4 °C (951.55005 °K, 1253.12 °F)

What is Cesium?

Soft silvery-white metallic element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table. One of the three metals which are liquid at room temperature. Cs-133 is the natural, and only stable, isotope. Fifteen other radioisotopes exist. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and ice at temperatures above 15 K. Cesium hydroxide is the strongest base known.

Cs = [Xe]6s1


56 VA VIA VIIA

Ba

Barium

Barium

N

Name: Barium Symbol: Ba Atomic Number: 56 Atomic Mass: 137.327 amu Melting Point: 725.0 °C (998.15 °K, 1337.0 °F) Boiling Point: 1140.0 °C (1413.15 °K, 2084.0 °F)

What is Barium?

Silvery-white reactive element, belonging to group 2 of the periodic table. Soluble barium compounds are extremely poisonous. Identified in 1774 by Karl Scheele and extracted in 1808 by Humphry Davy.

Ba = [Xe]6s2


57 VA VIA VIIA

La

Lanthanum

Lanthanum

N

Name: Lanthanum Symbol: La Atomic Number: 57 Atomic Mass: 138.9055 amu Melting Point: 920.0 °C (1193.15 °K, 1688.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3469.0 °C (3742.15 °K, 6276.2 °F)

What is Lanthanum?

(From the Greek word lanthanein, to line hidden) Silvery metallic element belonging to group 3 of the periodic table and oft considered to be one of the lanthanoids. Found in some rare-earth minerals. Twenty-five natural isotopes exist. La-139 which is stable, and La-138 which has a half-life of 1010 to 1015 years. The other twenty-three isotopes are radioactive. It resembles the lanthanoids chemically. Lanthanum has a low to moderate level of toxicity, and should be handled with care. Discovered in 1839 by C.G. Mosander.

La = [Xe]5d16s2


58 VA VIA VIIA

Ce

Cerium

Cerium

N

Name: Cerium Symbol: Ce Atomic Number: 58 Atomic Mass: 140.116 amu Melting Point: 795.0 °C (1068.15 °K, 1463.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3257.0 °C (3530.15 °K, 5894.6 °F)

What is Cerium?

Silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Four natural isotopes exist, and fifteen radioactive isotopes have been identified. Used in some rare-earth alloys. The oxidized form is used in the glass industry. Discovered by Martin .H. Klaproth in 1803.

Ce = [Xe] 6s24f15d1


59 VA VIA VIIA

Pr

Praseodymium

Praseodymium

N

Name: Praseodymium Symbol: Pr Atomic Number: 59 Atomic Mass: 140.90765 amu Melting Point: 935.0 °C (1208.15 °K, 1715.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3127.0 °C (3400.15 °K, 5660.6 °F)

What is Praseodymium?

Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Only natural isotope is Pr-141 which is not radioactive. Fourteen radioactive isotopes have been artificially produced. Used in rare-earth alloys. Discovered in 1885 by C.A. von Welsbach.

Pr = [Xe] 6s24f3


60 VA VIA VIIA

Nd

Neodymium

Neodymium

N

Name: Neodymium Symbol: Nd Atomic Number: 60 Atomic Mass: 144.24 amu Melting Point: 1010.0 °C (1283.15 °K, 1850.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3127.0 °C (3400.15 °K, 5660.6 °F)

What is Neodymium?

Soft bright silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes, Nd-144 being the only radioactive one with a half-life of 1010 to 1015 years. Six artificial radioisotopes have been produced. The metal is used in glass works to color class a shade of violet-purple and make it dichroic. One of the more reactive rare-earth metals, quickly reacts with air. Used in some rare-earth alloys. Neodymium is used to color the glass used in welder's glasses. Neodymium is also used in very powerful, permanent magnets (Nd2Fe14B). Discovered by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach in Austria in 1885 by separating didymium into its elemental components praseodymium and neodymium.

Nd = [Xe] 6s24f4


61 VA VIA VIIA

Pm

Promethium

Promethium

N

Name: Promethium Symbol: Pm Atomic Number: 61 Atomic Mass: (145.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Promethium?

Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Pm-147, the only natural isotope, is radioactive and has a half-life of 252 years. Eighteen radioisotopes have been produced, but all have very short half-lives. Found only in nuclear decay waste. Pm-147 is of interest as a beta-decay source, however Pm-146 and Pm-148 have to be removed from it first, as they generate gamma radiation. Discovered by J.A. Marinsky, L.E. Glendenin and C.D. Coryell in 1947.

Pm = [Xe] 6s24f5


62 VA VIA VIIA

Sm

Samarium

Samarium

N

Name: Samarium Symbol: Sm Atomic Number: 62 Atomic Mass: 150.36 amu Melting Point: 1072.0 °C (1345.15 °K, 1961.6 °F) Boiling Point: 1900.0 °C (2173.15 °K, 3452.0 °F)

What is Samarium?

Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes, Sm-147 is the only radioisotope, and has a half-life of 2.5x1011 years. Used for making special alloys needed in the production of nuclear reactors. Also used as a neutron absorber. Small quantities of samarium oxide is used in special optical glasses. The largest use of the element is its ferromagnetic alloy which produces permanent magnets that are five times stronger than magnets produced by any other material. Discovered by Francois Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1879.

Sm = [Xe] 6s24f6


63 VA VIA VIIA

Eu

Europium

Europium

N

Name: Europium Symbol: Eu Atomic Number: 63 Atomic Mass: 151.964 amu Melting Point: 822.0 °C (1095.15 °K, 1511.6 °F) Boiling Point: 1597.0 °C (1870.15 °K, 2906.6 °F)

What is Europium?

Soft silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Eu-151 and Eu-153 are the only two stable isotopes, both of which are neutron absorbers. Discovered in 1889 by Sir William Crookes.

Eu = [Xe] 6s24f7


64 VA VIA VIIA

Gd

Gadolinium

Gadolinium

N

Name: Gadolinium Symbol: Gd Atomic Number: 64 Atomic Mass: 157.25 amu Melting Point: 1311.0 °C (1584.15 °K, 2391.8 °F) Boiling Point: 3233.0 °C (3506.15 °K, 5851.4 °F)

What is Gadolinium?

Soft silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Seven natural, stable isotopes are known in addition to eleven artificial isotopes. Gd-155 and Gd-157 and the best neutron absorbers of all elements. Gadolinium compounds are used in electronics. Discovered by J.C.G Marignac in 1880.

Gd = [Xe] 6s25d14f7


65 VA VIA VIIA

Tb

Terbium

Terbium

N

Name: Terbium Symbol: Tb Atomic Number: 65 Atomic Mass: 158.92534 amu Melting Point: 1360.0 °C (1633.15 °K, 2480.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3041.0 °C (3314.15 °K, 5505.8 °F)

What is Terbium?

Silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Tb-159 is the only stable isotope, there are seventeen artificial isotopes. Discovered by G.G. Mosander in 1843.

Tb = [Xe] 6s24f9


66 VA VIA VIIA

Dy

Dysprosium

Dysprosium

N

Name: Dysprosium Symbol: Dy Atomic Number: 66 Atomic Mass: 162.5 amu Melting Point: 1412.0 °C (1685.15 °K, 2573.6 °F) Boiling Point: 2562.0 °C (2835.15 °K, 4643.6 °F)

What is Dysprosium?

Metallic with a bright silvery-white luster. Dysprosium belongs to the lanthanoids. It is relatively stable in air at room temperatures, it will however dissolve in mineral acids, evolving hydrogen. It is found in from rare-earth minerals. There are seven natural isotopes of dysprosium, and eight radioisotopes, Dy-154 being the most stable with a half-life of 3x106 years. Dysprosium is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear fission reactions, and in compact disks. It was discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886 in France. Its name comes from the Greek word dysprositos, which means hard to obtain.

Dy = [Xe] 6s24f10


67 VA VIA VIIA

Ho

Holmium

Holmium

N

Name: Holmium Symbol: Ho Atomic Number: 67 Atomic Mass: 164.93031 amu Melting Point: 1470.0 °C (1743.15 °K, 2678.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2720.0 °C (2993.15 °K, 4928.0 °F)

What is Holmium?

Relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metallic element, which is stable in dry air at room temperature. It oxidizes in moist air and at high temperatures. It belongs to the lanthanoids. A rare-earth metal, it is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite. It possesses unusual magnetic properties. One natural isotope, Ho-165 exists, six radioisotopes exist, the most stable being Ho-163 with a half-life of 4570 years. Holmium is used in some metal alloys, it is also said to stimulate the metabolism. Discovered by Per Theodor Cleve and J.L. Soret in Switzerland in 1879. The name homium comes from the Greek word Holmia which means Sweden. While all holmium compounds should be considered highly toxic, initial evidence seems to indicate that they do not pose much danger. The metal's dust however, is a fire hazard.


68 VA VIA VIIA

Er

Erbium

Erbium

Name: Erbium Symbol: Er Atomic Number: 68 Atomic Mass: 167.26 amu Melting Point: 1522.0 °C (1795.15 °K, 2771.6 °F) Boiling Point: 2510.0 °C (2783.15 °K, 4550.0 °F)

What is Erbium?

Soft silvery metallic element which belongs to the lanthanoids. Six natural isotopes that are stable. Twelve artificial isotopes are known. Used in nuclear technology as a neutron absorber. It is being investigated for other possible uses. Discovered by Carl G. Mosander in 1843.


69 VA VIA VIIA

Tm

Thulium

Thulium

Name: Thulium Symbol: Tm Atomic Number: 69 Atomic Mass: 168.9342 amu Melting Point: 1545.0 °C (1818.15 °K, 2813.0 °F) Boiling Point: 1727.0 °C (2000.15 °K, 3140.6 °F)

What is Thulium?

Soft grey metallic element that belongs to the lanthanoids. One natural isotope exists, Tm-169, and seventeen artificial isotopes have been produced. No known uses for the element. Discovered in 1879 by Per Theodor Cleve.


70 VA VIA VIIA

Yb

Ytterbium

Ytterbium

Name: Ytterbium Symbol: Yb Atomic Number: 70 Atomic Mass: 173.04 amu Melting Point: 824.0 °C (1097.15 °K, 1515.2 °F) Boiling Point: 1466.0 °C (1739.15 °K, 2670.8 °F)

What is Ytterbium?

Silvery metallic element of the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes and ten artificial isotopes are known. Used in certain steels. Discovered by J.D.G. Marignac in 1878.


71 VA VIA VIIA

Lu

Lutetium

Lutetium

Name: Lutetium Symbol: Lu Atomic Number: 71 Atomic Mass: 174.967 amu Melting Point: 1656.0 °C (1929.15 °K, 3012.8 °F) Boiling Point: 3315.0 °C (3588.15 °K, 5999.0 °F)

What is Lutetium?

Silvery-white rare-earth metal which is relatively stable in air. It happens to be the most expensive rare-earth metal. Its found with almost all rare-earth metals, but is very difficult to separate from other elements. Least abundant of all natural elements. Used in metal alloys, and as a catalyst in various processes. There are two natural, stable isotopes, and seven radioisotopes, the most stable being Lu-174 with a half-life of 3.3 years. The separation of lutetium from ytterbium was described by Georges Urbain in 1907. It was discovered at approximately the same time by Carl Auer von Welsbach. The name comes from the Greek word lutetia which means Paris.


72 VA VIA VIIA

Hf

Hafnium

Hafnium

Name: Hafnium Symbol: Hf Atomic Number: 72 Atomic Mass: 178.49 amu Melting Point: 2150.0 °C (2423.15 °K, 3902.0 °F) Boiling Point: 5400.0 °C (5673.15 °K, 9752.0 °F)

What is Hafnium?

Silvery lustrous metallic transition element. Used in tungsten alloys in filaments and electrodes, also acts as a neutron absorber. First reported by Urbain in 1911, existence was finally established in 1923 by D. Coster, G.C. de Hevesy in 1923.


73 VA VIA VIIA

Ta

Tantalum

Tantalum

Name: Tantalum Symbol: Ta Atomic Number: 73 Atomic Mass: 180.9479 amu Melting Point: 2996.0 °C (3269.15 °K, 5424.8 °F) Boiling Point: 5425.0 °C (5698.15 °K, 9797.0 °F)

What is Tantalum?

Heavy blue-grey metallic transition element. Ta-181 is a stable isotope, and Ta-180 is a radioactive isotope, with a half-life in excess of 10^7 years. Used in surgery as it is unreactive. Forms a passive oxide layer in air. Identified in 1802 by Ekeberg and isolated in 1820 by Jons J. Berzelius.


74 VA VIA VIIA

W

Tungsten

Tungsten

Name: Tungsten Symbol: W Atomic Number: 74 Atomic Mass: 183.84 amu Melting Point: 3410.0 °C (3683.15 °K, 6170.0 °F) Boiling Point: 5660.0 °C (5933.15 °K, 10220.0 °F)

What is Tungsten?

White or grey metallic transition element, formerly called wolfram. Forms a protective oxide in air and can be oxidized at high temperature. First isolated by Jose and Fausto de Elhuyer in 1783.


75 VA VIA VIIA

Re

Rhenium

Rhenium

Name: Rhenium Symbol: Re Atomic Number: 75 Atomic Mass: 186.207 amu Melting Point: 3180.0 °C (3453.15 °K, 5756.0 °F) Boiling Point: 5627.0 °C (5900.15 °K, 10160.6 °F)

What is Rhenium?

Silvery-white metallic transition element. Obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconducting.


76 VA VIA VIIA

Os

Osmium

Osmium

Name: Osmium Symbol: Os Atomic Number: 76 Atomic Mass: 190.23 amu Melting Point: 3045.0 °C (3318.15 °K, 5513.0 °F) Boiling Point: 5027.0 °C (5300.15 °K, 9080.6 °F)

What is Osmium?

Hard blue-white metallic transition element. Found with platinum and used in some alloys with platinum and iridium.


77 VA VIA VIIA

Ir

Iridium

Iridium

Name: Iridium Symbol: Ir Atomic Number: 77 Atomic Mass: 192.217 amu Melting Point: 2410.0 °C (2683.15 °K, 4370.0 °F) Boiling Point: 4527.0 °C (4800.15 °K, 8180.6 °F)

What is Iridium?

Very hard and brittle, silvery metallic transition element. It has a yellowish cast to it. Salts of iridium are highly colored. It is the most corrosion resistant metal known, not attacked by any acid, but is attacked by molten salts. There are two natural isotopes of iridium, and 4 radioisotopes, the most stable being Ir-192 with a half-life of 73.83 days. Ir-192 decays into platinum, while the other radioisotopes decay into osmium. Iridium is used in high temperature apparatus, electrical contacts, and as a hardening agent for platinum. Discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant in England. The name comes from the Greek word iris, which means rainbow. Iridium metal is generally non-toxic due to its relative unreactivity, but iridium compounds should be considered highly toxic.


78 VA VIA VIIA

Pt

Platinum

Platinum

Name: Platinum Symbol: Pt Atomic Number: 78 Atomic Mass: 195.078 amu Melting Point: 1772.0 °C (2045.15 °K, 3221.6 °F) Boiling Point: 3827.0 °C (4100.15 °K, 6920.6 °F)

What is Platinum?

Attractive greyish-white metal. When pure, it is malleable and ductile. Does not oxidize in air, insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid. Corroded by halogens, cyandies, sulphur and alkalis. Hydrogen and oxygen react explosively in the presence of platinum. There are six stable isotopes and three radioisotopes, the most stable being Pt-193 with a half-life of 60 years. Platinum is used in jewelry, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry, and anti-pollution devices in cars. PtCl2(NH3)2 is used to treat some forms of cancer. Platinum-cobalt alloys have magnetic properties. It is also used in the definition of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Discovered by Antonio de Ulloa in South America in 1735. The name comes from the Spanish word platina which means silver. Platinum metal is generally not a health concern due to its unreactivity, however platinum compounds should be considered highly toxic.


79 VA VIA VIIA

Au

Gold

Gold

Name: Gold Symbol: Au Atomic Number: 79 Atomic Mass: 196.96655 amu Melting Point: 1064.43 °C (1337.5801 °K, 1947.9741 °F) Boiling Point: 2807.0 °C (3080.15 °K, 5084.6 °F)

What is Gold?

Gold is gold colored. It is the most malleable and ductile metal known. There is only one stable isotope of gold, and five radioisotopes of gold, Au-195 being the most stable with a half-life of 186 days. Gold is used as a monetary standard, in jewelry, dentistry, electronics. Au-198 is used in treating cancer and some other medical conditions. Gold has been known to exist as far back as 2600 BC. Gold comes from the Anglo-Saxon word gold. Its symbol, Au, comes from the Latin word aurum, which means gold. Gold is not particularly toxic, however it is known to cause damage to the liver and kidneys in some.


80 VA VIA VIIA

Hg

Mercury

Mercury

Name: Mercury Symbol: Hg Atomic Number: 80 Atomic Mass: 200.59 amu Melting Point: -38.87 °C (234.28 °K, -37.966 °F) Boiling Point: 356.58 °C (629.73 °K, 673.844 °F)

Germicidal UV discharge tube

contains mercury.

What is Mercury?

Heavy silvery liquid metallic element, belongs to the zinc group. Used in thermometers, barometers and other scientific apparatus. Less reactive than zinc and cadmium, does not displace hydrogen from acids. Forms a number of complexes and organomercury compounds.


81 VA VIA VIIA

Tl

Thallium

Thallium

Name: Thallium Symbol: Tl Atomic Number: 81 Atomic Mass: 204.3833 amu Melting Point: 303.5 °C (576.65 °K, 578.3 °F) Boiling Point: 1457.0 °C (1730.15 °K, 2654.6 °F)

What is Thallium?

Pure, unreacted thallium appears silvery-white and exhibits a metallic lustre. Upon reacting with air, it begins to turn bluish-grey and looks like lead. It is very malleable, and can be cut with a knife. There are two stable isotopes, and four radioisotopes, Tl-204 being the most stable with a half-life of 3.78 years. Thallium sulfate was used as a rodenticide. Thallium sulphine's conductivity changes with exposure to infrared light, this gives it a use in infrared detectors. Discovered by Sir William Crookes via spectroscopy. Its name comes from the Greek word thallos, which means green twig. Thallium and its compounds are toxic and can cause cancer.


82 VA VIA VIIA

Pb

Lead

Lead

Name: Lead Symbol: Pb Atomic Number: 82 Atomic Mass: 207.2 amu Melting Point: 327.5 °C (600.65 °K, 621.5 °F) Boiling Point: 1740.0 °C (2013.15 °K, 3164.0 °F)

What is Lead?

Heavy dull grey ductile metallic element, belongs to group 14. Used in building construction, lead-place accumulators, bullets and shot, and is part of solder, pewter, bearing metals, type metals and fusible alloys.


83 VA VIA VIIA

Bi

Bismuth

Bismuth

Dschwen, wikipedia.org

Name: Bismuth Symbol: Bi Atomic Number: 83 Atomic Mass: 208.98038 amu Melting Point: 271.3 °C (544.45 °K, 520.33997 °F) Boiling Point: 1560.0 °C (1833.15 °K, 2840.0 °F)

What is Bismuth?

White crystalline metal with a pink tinge, belongs to group 15. Most diamagnetic of all metals and has the lowest thermal conductivity of all the elements except mercury. Lead-free bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics and medical procedures. Burns in the air and produces a blue flame. In 1753, C.G. Junine first demonstrated that it was different from lead.


84 VA VIA VIIA

Po

Polonium

Polonium

Name: Polonium Symbol: Po Atomic Number: 84 Atomic Mass: (209.0) amu Melting Point: 254.0 °C (527.15 °K, 489.2 °F) Boiling Point: 962.0 °C (1235.15 °K, 1763.6 °F)

What is Polonium?

Rare radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 16 of the periodic table. Over 30 known isotopes exist, the most of all elements. Po-209 has a half-life of 103 years. Possible uses in heating spacecraft. Discovered by Marie Curie in 1898 in a sample of pitchblende.


85 VA VIA VIIA

At

Astatine

Astatine

Name: Astatine Symbol: At Atomic Number: 85 Atomic Mass: (210.0) amu Melting Point: 302.0 °C (575.15 °K, 575.6 °F) Boiling Point: 337.0 °C (610.15 °K, 638.6 °F)

What is Astatine?

Radioactive halogen element. Occurs naturally from uranium and thorium decay. At least 20 known isotopes. At-210, the most stable, has a half-life of 8.3 hours. Synthesized by nuclear bombardment in 1940 by D.R. Corson, K.R. MacKenzie and E. Segre at the University of California.


86 VA VIA VIIA

Rn

Radon

Radon

Name: Radon Symbol: Rn

Atomic Number: 86 Atomic Mass: (222.0) amu Melting Point: -71.0 °C (202.15 °K, -95.8 °F) Boiling Point: -61.8 °C (211.35 °K, -79.24 °F)

Link

What is Radon?

Colorless radioactive gaseous element, belongs to the noble gases. Of the twenty known isotopes, the most stable is Rn-222 with a half-life of 3.8 days. Formed by the radioactive decay of Radium-226. Radon itself decays into polonium. Used in radiotherapy. As a noble gas, it is effectively inert, though radon fluoride has been synthesized. First isolated in 1908 by Ramsey and Gray.


87 VA VIA VIIA

Fr

Francium

Francium

Name: Francium Symbol: Fr Atomic Number: 87 Atomic Mass: (223.0) amu Melting Point: 27.0 °C (300.15 °K, 80.6 °F) Boiling Point: 677.0 °C (950.15 °K, 1250.6 °F)

What is Francium?

Radioactive element, belongs to group 1 of the periodic table. Found in uranium and thorium ores. The 22 known isotopes are all radioactive, with the most stable being Fr-223. Its existence was confirmed in 1939 by Marguerite Perey.


88 VA VIA VIIA

Ra

Radium

Radium

Name: Radium Symbol: Ra Atomic Number: 88 Atomic Mass: (226.0) amu Melting Point: 700.0 °C (973.15 °K, 1292.0 °F) Boiling Point: 1737.0 °C (2010.15 °K, 3158.6 °F)

Link

What is Radium?

Radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 2 of the periodic table. Most stable isotope, Ra-226 has a half-life of 1602 years, which decays into radon. Isolated from pitchblende in 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie.


89 VA VIA VIIA

Ac

Actinium

Actinium

Name: Actinium Symbol: Ac Atomic Number: 89 Atomic Mass: (227.0) amu Melting Point: 1050.0 °C (1323.15 °K, 1922.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3200.0 °C (3473.15 °K, 5792.0 °F)

What is Actinium?

Silvery radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 3 of the periodic table. The most stable isotope, Ac-227, has a half-life of 217 years. Ac-228 (half-life of 6.13 hours) also occurs in nature. There are 22 other artificial isotopes, all radioactive and having very short half-lives. Chemistry similar to lanthanum. Used as a source of alpha particles. Discovered by A. Debierne in 1899.


90 VA VIA VIIA

Th

Thorium

Thorium

Name: Thorium Symbol: Th Atomic Number: 90 Atomic Mass: 232.0381 amu Melting Point: 1750.0 °C (2023.15 °K, 3182.0 °F) Boiling Point: 4790.0 °C (5063.15 °K, 8654.0 °F)

What is Thorium?

Grey radioactive metallic element. Belongs to actinoids. Found in monazite sand in Brazil, India and the US. Thorium-232 has a half-life of 1.39x10^10 years. Can be used as a nuclear fuel for breeder reactors. Thorium-232 captures slow neutrons and breeds uranium-233. Discovered by Jons J. Berzelius in 1829.


91 VA VIA VIIA

Pa

Protactinium

Protactinium

Name: Protactinium Symbol: Pa Atomic Number: 91 Atomic Mass: 231.03587 amu Melting Point: 1600.0 °C (1873.15 °K, 2912.0 °F) Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Protactinium?

Radioactive metallic element, belongs to the actinoids. The most stable isotope, Pa-231 has a half-life of 2.43x104 years. At least 10 other radioactive isotopes are known. No practical applications are known. Discovered in 1917 by Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn.


92 VA VIA VIIA

U

Uranium

Uranium

Name: Uranium Symbol: U Atomic Number: 92 Atomic Mass: 238.0289 amu Melting Point: 1132.0 °C (1405.15 °K, 2069.6 °F) Boiling Point: 3818.0 °C (4091.15 °K, 6904.4 °F)

What is Uranium?

White radioactive metallic element belonging to the actinoids. Three natural isotopes, U-238, U-235 and U-234. Uranium-235 is used as the fuel for nuclear reactors and weapons. Discovered by Martin H. Klaproth in 1789.


93 VA VIA VIIA

Np

Neptunium

Neptunium

Name: Neptunium Symbol: Np Atomic Number: 93 Atomic Mass: (237.0) amu Melting Point: 640.0 °C (913.15 °K, 1184.0 °F) Boiling Point: 3902.0 °C (4175.15 °K, 7055.6 °F)

What is Neptunium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Np-237, the most stable isotope, has a half-life of 2.2x106 years and is a by product of nuclear reactors. The other known isotopes have mass numbers 229 through 236, and 238 through 241. Np-236 has a half-life of 5x103 years. First produced by Edwin M. McMillan and P.H. Abelson in 1940.


94 VA VIA VIIA

Pu

Plutonium

Plutonium

Name: Plutonium Symbol: Pu Atomic Number: 94 Atomic Mass: (244.0) amu Melting Point: 639.5 °C (912.65 °K, 1183.1 °F) Boiling Point: 3235.0 °C (3508.15 °K, 5855.0 °F)

What is Plutonium?

Dense silvery radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Pu-244 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 7.6x107 years. Thirteen isotopes are known. Pu-239 is the most important, it undergoes nuclear fission with slow neutrons and is hence important to nuclear weapons and reactors. Plutonium production is monitored down to the gram to prevent military misuse. First produced by Gleen T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, J.W. Kennedy and A.C. Wahl in 1940.


95 VA VIA VIIA

Am

Americium

Americium

Name: Americium Symbol: Am Atomic Number: 95 Atomic Mass: (243.0) amu Melting Point: 994.0 °C (1267.15 °K, 1821.2 °F) Boiling Point: 2607.0 °C (2880.15 °K, 4724.6 °F)

Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

What is Americium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Ten known isotopes. Am-243 is the most stable isotope, with a half-life of 7.95x103 years. Discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1945, it was obtained by bombarding uranium-238 with alpha particles.


96 VA VIA VIIA

Cm

Curium

Curium

Name: Curium Symbol: Cm Atomic Number: 96 Atomic Mass: (247.0) amu Melting Point: 1340.0 °C (1613.15 °K, 2444.0 °F) Boiling Point: Unknown

Link

What is Curium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Nine known isotopes, Cm-247 has a half-life of 1.64x107 years. First identified by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1944, first produced by L.B. Werner and I. Perlman in 1947 by bombarding americium-241 with neutrons. Named for Marie Curie.


97 VA VIA VIIA

Bk

Berkelium

Berkelium

Name: Berkelium Symbol: Bk Atomic Number: 97 Atomic Mass: (247.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Berkelium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Eight known isotopes, the most common Bk-247, has a half-life of 1.4x103 years. First produced by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1949 by bombarding americium-241 with alpha particles.


98 VA VIA VIIA

Cf

Californium

Californium

Name: Californium Symbol: Cf Atomic Number: 98 Atomic Mass: (251.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Californium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Cf-251 has a half life of about 700 years. Nine isotopes are known. Cf-252 is an intense neutron source, which makes it an intense neutron source and gives it a use in neutron activation analysis and a possible use as a radiation source in medicine. First produced by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1950.


99 VA VIA VIIA

Es

Einsteinium

Einsteinium

Name: Einsteinium Symbol: Es Atomic Number: 99 Atomic Mass: (252.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Einsteinium?

Appearance is unknown, however it is most probably metallic and silver or gray in color. Radioactive metallic transuranic element belonging to the actinoids. Es-254 has the longest half-life of the eleven known isotopes at 270 days. First identified by Albert Ghiorso and associates in the debris of the 1952 hydrogen bomb explosion. In 1961 the first microgram quantities of Es-232 were separated. While einsteinium never exists naturally, if a sufficient amount was assembled, it would pose a radiation hazard.


100 VA VIA VIIA

Fm

Fermium

Fermium

Name: Fermium Symbol: Fm Atomic Number: 100 Atomic Mass: (257.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Fermium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Ten known isotopes, most stable is Fm-257 with a half-life of 10 days. First identified by Albert Ghiorso and associates in the debris of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion in 1952.


101 VA VIA VIIA

Md

Mendelevium

Mendelevium

Name: Mendelevium Symbol: Md Atomic Number: 101 Atomic Mass: (258.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Mendelevium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to the actinoid series. Only known isotope, Md-256 has a half-life of 1.3 hours. First identified by Glenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso and associates in 1955. Alternative name unnilunium has been proposed. Named after the 'inventor' of the periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev.


102 VA VIA VIIA

No

Nobelium

Nobelium

Name: Nobelium Symbol: No Atomic Number: 102 Atomic Mass: (259.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

Link

What is Nobelium?

Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Seven known isotopes exist, the most stable being No-254 with a half-life of 255 seconds. First identified with certainty by Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg in 1966. Unnilbium has been proposed as an alternative name.


103 VA VIA VIIA

Lr

Lawrencium

Lawrencium

Name: Lawrencium Symbol: Lr Atomic Number: 103 Atomic Mass: (262.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Lawrencium?

Appearance unknown, however it is most likely silvery-white or grey and metallic. Lawrencium is a synthetic rare-earth metal. There are eight known radioisotopes, the most stable being Lr-262 with a half-life of 3.6 hours. Due to the short half-life of lawrencium, and its radioactivity, there are no known uses for it. Identified by Albert Ghiorso in 1961 at Berkeley. It was produced by bombarding californium with boron ions. The name is temporary IUPAC nomenclature, the origin of the name comes from Ernest O. Lawrence, the inventor of the cyclotron. If sufficient amounts of lawrencium were produced, it would pose a radiation hazard.


104 VA VIA VIIA

Rf

Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium

Name: Rutherfordium Symbol: Rf Atomic Number: 104 Atomic Mass: (261.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Rutherfordium (Unnilquadium)?

Radioactive transactinide element. Expected to have similar chemical properties to those displayed by hafnium. Rf-260 was discovered by the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in 1964. Researchers at Berkeley discovered Unq-257 and Unq-258 in 1964.


105 VA VIA VIIA

Db

Dubnium

Dubnium

Name: Dubnium Symbol: Db Atomic Number: 105 Atomic Mass: (262.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Dubnium (Unnilpentium)?

Radioactive transactinide element. Half-life of 1.6s. Discovered in 1970 by Berkeley researchers. So far, seven isotopes have been discovered.


106 VA VIA VIIA

Sg

Seaborgium

Seaborgium

Name: Seaborgium Symbol: Sg Atomic Number: 106 Atomic Mass: (263.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

Link

What is Seaborgium (Unnilhexium)?

Half-life of 0.9 +/- 0.2 s. Discovered by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in June of 1974. Its existence was confirmed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Livermore National Laboratory in September of 1974.


107 VA VIA VIIA

Bh

Bohrium

Bohrium

Name: Bohrium Symbol: Bh Atomic Number: 107 Atomic Mass: (262.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown

What is Bohrium (Unnilseptium)?

Radioactive transition metal. Half-life of approximately 1/500 s. Discovered by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in 1976. Confirmed by West German physicists at the Heavy Ion Research Laboratory at Darmstadt.


108 VA VIA VIIA

Hs

Hassium

Hassium

Name: Hassium Symbol: Hs Atomic Number: 108 Atomic Mass: (265.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown


109 VA VIA VIIA

Mt

Meitnerium

Meitnerium

Name: Meitnerium Symbol: Mt Atomic Number: 109 Atomic Mass: (266.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown


Einsteinium es
Einsteinium (Es) VA VIA VIIA

Albert Einstein

  • Relativity

  • E = mc2

  • Offered Presidency of Israel

  • Element 99

  • Photoelectric effect

    • Solar calculator


Curium cm
Curium (Cm) VA VIA VIIA

  • Madame Curie

    • Pioneer in radioactivity

      • (Ra = radium)

        • 25 pounds of pitchblende ore yields 1/1000 of a gram of radium

        • Emits 2 millions times as much radiation as uranium

      • (Rn = radon gas)

    • Discovered 5 elements

    • Nobel Prize (5 in Curie family)

    • Born in Poland

      • (Po = polonium)

Marie Curie (1876–1934)


Radium ra
Radium (Ra) VA VIA VIIA

Radium was used as a fluorescent paint on watch dials. It was

applied with thin brushes that workers would lick to keep a fine tip.

Many people died from the exposure to radium.


Radon gas
Radon Gas VA VIA VIIA

Radon gas occurs naturally

from the radioactive decay

of radium. Radium is found

in small amounts in rock.

Ra  Rn + radiation

Predicted fraction of homes over 4 picocuries/liter radon


Nobelium no element 102
Nobelium (No) VA VIA VIIAElement 102

Inventor:

dynamite (TNT)

blasting gelatin

Nobel Prize

Trinitrotoluene

Alfred Nobel

“Merchant of Death”


Seaborgium sg
Seaborgium (Sg) VA VIA VIIA

Glenn Seaborg

  • Separated f-block from rest of periodic table

  • Worked on Manhattan Project

    (Atomic bomb)

  • Classified until after WW II

  • Element 106

    • Only living person to have an element named for them


Silicon vs silicone
Silicon vs. Silicone VA VIA VIIA

  • Silicon (Si) element

  • Silicone (…Si – O – Si…) polymer

    • Sealant (caulk) prevents leaks

    • Breast augmentation

No cause-and-effect relationship exists between

breast enlargement and breast cancer. Only one

researcher found a causal link.


Magnesium

12 VA VIA VIIA

Mg

24.305

Magnesium

Atomic Mass 24 amu

melting point =

silver gray metal

used in flash bulbs, bombs,and flares

8th most abundant element (2.2% of Earth’s crust)

lack of Mg produces same biological effect

as alcoholism (delirium tremens)


Potassium metal in water
Potassium Metal in Water VA VIA VIIA

Newmark, CHEMISTRY, 1993, page 25


e VA VIA VIIA

N

7

C

6

H

1

S

16

Ir

77

O

8

N

7

Mn

25

<

H

1

He

2

H

1

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103


Elements Database VA VIA VIIA

Printable

Periodic

Table

Elements listed Alphabetically

Get free Chemistry and Physics images for your school projects and/or research work.Feel free to use the periodic table images below in your school projects and/or research work.


Periodic table of the elements

Periodic Table of the Elements VA VIA VIIA

Periodic Table of the Elements

Images from:

http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/pertable_j.htm

Data from:

http://www.chemicalelements.com/

http://www.elementsdatabase.com/

http://www.periodictable.com

Written by: Bill Byles - [email protected] & Jeff Christopherson – unit5.org/chemistry


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