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Weight, Body Composition, and Health. Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight. Weight and Health. Goal is to determine if an individual is: Underweight Health risks Healthy weight Overweight (BMI > 25) Health risks if overweight and overfat Huge health issue in US (see page 280). Key:.

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Weight body composition and health

Weight, Body Composition, and Health

Maintaining a Healthy

Body Weight


Weight and health

Weight and Health

  • Goal is to determine if an individual is:

    • Underweight

      • Health risks

    • Healthy weight

    • Overweight (BMI > 25)

      • Health risks if overweight and overfat

      • Huge health issue in US (see page 280)


Weight body composition and health

Key:

No Data

<10%

10%–14%

15%–19%

20%–24%

_

>25%

_

Increasing Prevalence of Obesity (BMI >30) among U.S. Adults

1991: Only four states had obesity

rates greater than 15 percent.

1996: Over half of the states

had obesity rates greater than

15 percent.

2001: Only one state had an obesity

rate below 15 percent, most had

obesity rates greater than 20 percent

and one had an obesity rate greater

than 25 percent.


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2003

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2003

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2004

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2004

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2007

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2007

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2008

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2008

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2009

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2009

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2010

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2010

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%


U s data

U.S. Data

  • Obesity has risen 75% in 10 years.

  • Obesity has risen nearly 100% in 20 years.

  • Rates have doubled in children in 20 years.

  • Rates have tripled in teens in 20 years.

  • Self-reported data indicate that 61% of adults

  • are overweight or obese.

  • Data based on direct measurements indicate that two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese.


U s obesity data by race

U.S. Obesity Data by Race


Overweight children

Overweight Children

  • Children most likely to have a high BMI when:

    • Either parent or both overweight or obese

    • They live in smaller families

    • They are poor

    • They consume a high proportion of calories from fat

    • They are avid TV watchers – more screen time is associated with higher weight


Maine obesity data

Maine Obesity Data

% ObeseYear

10-141995

15-191996

15-191997

15-191998

15-191999

15-192000

15-192001

20-242002

15-192003

20-24 2004

24.82007

25.8 2009

26.5 2011

* BMI > 30, CDC


Evaluating weight health status

Evaluating Weight/Health Status

  • Compare weight to standard height-weight tables

    • Tables are of limited value and use

  • Body Mass Index (BMI)

    • Preferred measure for evaluating weight

    • Based on significant amount of research


Weight body composition and health

BMI

  • Upper end of BMI may not be a good indicator of health for:

    • body builder or serious athlete’s weight/health

    • the elderly

  • Low end of the BMI is an appropriate measure of being underweight for all


Weight body composition and health

BMI

  • Calculating BMI – most use BMI calculators or charts (see page 341)

    BMI = weight in pounds x 703

    (height, inches)2

    Weight, lbs = desired BMI x (height, inches)2

    703


Weight body composition and health

BMI

  • Calculating the weight associated with a desired BMI:

    Weight, lbs = desired BMI x (height, inches)2

    703


Health risks and bmi

Health Risks and BMI


Health risks and weight

Health Risks and Weight

  • Health risks in each category increase if:

    • Waist is > 40” men, > 35” women

    • Smoke

    • Physically inactive

    • High blood glucose

    • High LDL levels or low HDL levels

    • Family history of heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type II diabetes


Body fat

Body Fat

  • Need enough body fat to meet basic needs, but not so much as to increase health risks

    • Essential Body Fat:

      • Males: 3% body fat

      • Females: 12% body fat, 20% for reproductive health (menstruation and fertility)

        • The latter value has recently come into question


Body fat and health

% Body Fat and Health

  • Desirable % body fat levels: text values

    • Males: 8 - 24 %

    • Females: 21 – 33 %


Measuring body fat

Measuring % Body Fat

% body fat is difficult to measure accurately

  • Common methods for measuring:

    • Fat fold measures with calipers

    • Bioelectric impedance

    • Underwater weighing

    • Air displacement

    • X-ray, MRI, CT and other expensive techniques


Distribution of body fat matters

Distribution of Body Fat Matters

  • Central Obesity (apple shape)

    • Fat stored around the organs of the abdomen

    • Associated with increased risk of:

      • Heart disease

      • Stroke

      • Hypertension

      • Some cancers


Distribution of body fat

Distribution of Body Fat

  • More on central obesity

    • More common in men and post-menopausal women

    • Associated with smoking

    • Abdominal fat is likely to go directly to the liver and be used to make VLDL  LDL


Distribution of body fat1

Distribution of Body Fat

  • Lower-Body Obesity (pear shape)

    • Fat stores are concentrated around the hips and thighs

    • Doesn’t raise health risks as much as central obesity.

    • See most often in women during reproductive years


Waist circumference

Waist Circumference

  • Health risks increase when waist circumference is:

    • Greater than 40” in men

    • Greater than 35” in women

  • Risk is even greater if BMI is also > 24.9


What are the health issues

What are the Health Issues?

  • Health issues associated with being overweight or obese:

    • Type II diabetes

    • Hypertension

    • High cholesterol

    • Heart disease


Health issues

Health Issues

  • Health issues continued

    • Gall bladder disease

    • Osteoarthritis

    • Respiratory problems

    • Hernias

    • Varicose veins

    • Flat feet

    • Complications during surgery and pregnancy


Health issues underweight

Health Issues - Underweight

  • Increased risk of infection and illness

  • Tired and weak (may be anemic)

  • Amenorrhea (periods stop)

  • Reduced fertility

  • Complications during surgery

  • Poor growth and development in kids


Summary

Summary

Methods for Evaluating Weight/Health Status

  • Compare weight to standard tables (not useful)

  • Calculate BMI

  • Determine % body fat

  • Evaluate fat distribution

  • Measure waist circumference

  • Consider other risk factors


Who should lose weight

Who should lose weight?

  • For people who are overweight or obese and have 2 or more risk factors weight loss is recommended

    • even a small weight loss (10% of body weight) will significantly decrease health risks


Who should lose gain weight

Who should lose/gain weight?

  • Healthy BMI - maintain current weight.

  • Overweight, desirable waist measurement, less than 2 other risk factors  prevent further weight gain

  • Obese – lose weight

  • Individuals who are have a BMI of less than ______ should gain weight.


Strategies for weight loss

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • In general need to decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity

    • Generally need both for long-term weight loss and health

  • To lose 1 pound per week you need to reduce caloric intake (or increase caloric output) by:

    • 500 kcal per day = 3500 kcal/week


Strategies for weight loss1

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • Set reasonable goals

    • 1-2 pounds per week

    • Loss of 10% of body weight

    • May set interim goals if a large amount of weight loss is desired


Making a change

Making a Change!


Strategies for weight loss2

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • Avoid fad diets and weight loss supplements

  • Avoid very low calorie diets and skipping meals

    • Never less than 1200 kcal per day

    • Why??


Strategies for weight loss3

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • Increase level of physical activity

    • 30-45 minutes moderate intensity, 5 days a week

    • Add weight bearing exercise to build muscle

      • Why?


Strategies for weight loss4

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • Reduce portion size

  • Increase intake of fiber (why?)

    • More fruits and veggies

    • More whole grain products

  • Eliminate empty calories

    • Soda, alcohol, candy…..

  • Decrease calories from liquid sources


Strategies for weight loss5

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • Drink plenty of water

  • Eat a salad before dinner

    • Low calorie dressing

  • Buy/make fixed size portions

  • Avoid buffets and family style serving

  • Reduce fat content of foods w.o increasing portion size


Strategies for weight loss6

Strategies for Weight Loss

  • Avoid starving all day…..leads to binging

  • Join a weight loss group

    • Provides support and accountability

    • Some offer nutritional guidance as well


Extreme measures

Extreme Measures

  • Extreme weight loss measures may be called in cases of severe obesity (BMI >40)

    • When health issues of weight are greater than the health issues associated with the treatment


Extreme measures1

Extreme Measures

  • Treatment is usually:

    • Surgery to drastically reduce stomach size and to bypass some of the SI

      • Long-term success depends upon compliance with dietary restrictions

      • Lifetime medical supervision is needed

      • At high risk of many vitamin and mineral deficiencies

    • Medications


Weight gain

Weight Gain

  • Goal is to add lean body mass (as well as body fat if extremely underweight)

    • Exercise is an important component of weight gain

  • Weight gain can be just as challenging as weight loss!


Strategies for weight gain

Strategies for Weight Gain

  • Chose energy dense foods

    • May be higher fat choices

    • Someone who is seriously underweight can afford a little more fat

    • Examples:

      • 2% milk vs. skim milk

      • Peanut butter on anything

      • Salmon vs. haddock


Strategies for weight gain1

Strategies for Weight Gain

  • Eat regular meals

    • Do not call a “non-meal” a meal

    • Lettuce or carrots or an apple are not lunch

  • Leave salad for last

  • Increase portion size

    • Extra meat or cheese on sandwich

    • Larger bowl of cereal, add a banana


Strategies for weight gain2

Strategies for Weight Gain

  • Snack between meals, but not too close to meals!

    • Chose nutritionally /calorie densesnacks

      • Peanut butter on apple or crackers

      • Bowl of cereal with milk

      • Trail mix (seeds, nuts, raisins….)

      • Slimfast or instant breakfast

  • Drink caloric beverages

    • Milk, juice …..


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