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Session 2 Why conducting an integrity vulnerability assessment in the water sector ? By Marie Laberge UNDP Oslo Governance Centre. Why is it important to tackle corruption in the water sector?

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Session 2

Why conducting an

integrity vulnerability

assessment in the

water sector?

By Marie Laberge

UNDP Oslo Governance Centre


Overview

Why is it important to tackle corruption in the water sector?

Why is it important to collect empirical evidence on the causes and effects of corruption in the water sector?

Brief overview of the proposed assessment approach (Sector Integrity Vulnerability Assessment – ‘SIVA’)

Workshop agenda

Overview


1. Why is it important to tackle corruption in the water sector?


Tajikistan is the 5th most water-rich country in the world...

93% of the urban population has access to drinking water

But in the rural areas, where 72% of the population lives, only 47% have access to drinking water

The problem is one of governance, not availability.


What does corruption look like in the water sector

Some typical examples…

Distorted site selection of boreholes or abstraction points for irrigation

Collusion & favoritism in public procurement

Falsified meter reading

Giving preferential treatment for repairs in exchange for ‘speed money’

What does corruption ‘look like’ in the water sector?


  • Corruption in water puts lives and livelihoods at risk

    • With some 70% of all infrastructure needing reconstruction, there has been a serious deterioration in drinking water quality  health threat to the population

    • Only 40-50% of treatment systems are effective

    • As a result: Waterborne infectious diseases prevalent in rural areas

  • Challenges are growing and problem is increasingly urgent

  • High costs to society (human, economic & environmental)


Why is the water sector especially vulnerable to corruption
Why is the water sector especially vulnerable to corruption?

Water governance spills across agencies

Viewed as a technical issue

Involves large flows of public funds

Water is scarce and becoming more so


What are some key lessons from tackling corruption in the water sector
What are some key lessons from tackling corruption in the water sector?

Prevent corruption from outset

Understand local context, otherwise reform will fail

Support the poor

Reform must come from above and below


2. Why is it important to collect empirical evidence on the causes and impacts of corruption?


Because of the sensitive nature of anti-corruption reforms, credible research (rather than anecdotes) is essential.

Good policy and good remedy can only come from good diagnosis

Numerous plans & strategies to improve water services have been adopted in Tajikistan, but their implementation is lagging behind

First step to demonstrate progress is to collect evidence, in order to be able to measure this progress!


Monitoring practices in tajikistan
Monitoring practices in Tajikistan credible research (rather than anecdotes) is essential.

No standard reporting/monitoring requirement in the water sector (except for tax & book-keeping purposes):

  • Data is collected by various (6) agencies independently, without any coordination between them

  • Data is collected mainly on the water supply system (water quality & quantity) – but not on access (e.g. No data collected on the distance between households and water sources)

  • Data is unreliable

  • Database are incomplete

  • Even data collection on financial flows is unavailable

  • Big gap between the picture emerging from statistics and what is actually experienced on the ground


Evidence can serve many purposes
Evidence can serve many purposes... credible research (rather than anecdotes) is essential.


Evidence can serve many purposes: credible research (rather than anecdotes) is essential.

To inform reform strategies to reduce corruption risks (policymaking)

To raise public intolerance to corruption (advocacy)

“Reforms must come from above and below...”

Different purposes  different types of data  different audiences  different dissemination strategies


Data to identify credible research (rather than anecdotes) is essential.specific target groups, to describe local access conditions & implementation process, tomeasure performance against targets

Data showing need for service & impact of service provided

Data to define problems (to confirm requests /complaints from users)

Data on costs & resources needed

Data to identify target groups, to describe steps involved, costs & resources needed, progress & impact


3. credible research (rather than anecdotes) is essential.Overview of the proposed assessment approach:

Sector Integrity Vulnerability Assessment (‘SIVA’)


Drawing from the experience of the Water Integrity Network with ‘water integrity studies’

BUT – We are only presenting a ‘menu of options’

Does not mean simply following predefined steps like in a cookbook!

How to adapt international experiences to the Tajik context?


Four key principles: with ‘water integrity studies’

Evidence-based approach: To depersonalize & depoliticize the fight against corruption

Based on multiple sources of evidence (for triangulation), and mix of qualitative & quantitative research methods

Conducted in collaboration with both water consumers & providers

Create ownership through partnership


Overview of the proposed assessment approach siva

Rather than measuring the incidence of corruption, let’s focus on the causes of corruption:

wrong institutional incentives, lack of accountability, lack of public info & transparency

4 advantages of the proposed approach:

Helps to pinpoint specific areas / interactions where corruption occurs

Provides a guide into ‘what can be done’

By ‘ranking’ risks, helps to identify priority areas for reform

Can be used for monitoring change over time

Overview of the proposed assessment approach: ‘SIVA’


Four steps: focus on the

Mapping the ‘potential’ corruption risks for each ‘step’ in the provision of water

Identify danger signs (‘red flags’) to watch out for: they alert decision-makers, investigators or the public to the possibility of corrupt practices

Find empirical evidence (through surveys & analysis of objective data sources) of corruption risks and ‘rank’ them based on incidence & impact

Establish a monitoring system to track the most critical ‘red flags’ on a regular basis


How to rank corruption risks the risk quadrant
How to rank ‘corruption risks’: focus on the The risk quadrant


Preliminary lessons learned from international experience

Engage stakeholders from the outset focus on the

Develop national ownership

Partnership with government is critical

Collaborate with committed, legitimate, respected local partner

National political enabling environment

... Or else, integrity refroms can backfire and eventually even increase corruption!

Preliminary lessons learned from international experience


Overview of the workshop agenda

How to measure corruption: ‘the basics’ focus on the

Mapping corruption risks & identifying ‘red flags’ in two sub-sectors: WSS & WRM (irrigation)

‘Internal’ and ‘external’ methodologies for collecting evidence

How to adapt these methodologies to the Tajik context?

How to develop a sustainable monitoring system?

How to develop a mitigation plan?

How to design a communication strategy?

Next steps

Overview of the workshop agenda


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