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Qualitative Methods. 9810009m Lisa 9810010m Angela. Outline. Basis for selection of qualitative methods Strategies for Qualitative Research General Methodological Guidelines Critically Analyzing Qualitative Research. Key words associated with qualitative methods include:. Complexity,

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Qualitative methods

Qualitative Methods

9810009m Lisa

9810010m Angela


Outline
Outline

  • Basis for selection of qualitative methods

  • Strategies for Qualitative Research

  • General Methodological Guidelines

  • Critically Analyzing Qualitative Research


Key words associated with qualitative methods include
Key words associated with qualitative methods include:

  • Complexity,

  • contextual,

  • exploration,

  • discovery,

  • inductive logic.



Basis for selection of qualitative methods
Basis for selection of qualitative methods

  • Three possible reasons for choosing qualitative methods are explored as follows:

  • A. the researcher’s view of the world

  • B. the nature of the research question

  • C. practical reasons associated with the nature of qualitative methods


A the researcher s view of the world
a. The researcher’s view of the world

  • Constructivist view

  • Transformative views


B the nature of the research question
b. The nature of the research question

  • Patton(2002) identifies the following types of research questions for which qualitative methods would be appropriate:







Strategies for qualitative research
Strategies for Qualitative Research unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Seven strategies


  • . unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Strategies for Qualitative Research: many different types of qualitative research are practiced in educational and psychological research. In this chapter we mention seven strategies as follows.


Strategies for qualitative research1
Strategies for Qualitative Research unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • 1. Ethnographic research: Describe and analyze practices and beliefs of cultures and communities by interacting with people in their everyday lives

  • 2. Case study: Detailed study of one individual (of a group) through observation


  • 3. unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Phenomenological research:

  • Seek the individual’s perceptions and meaning of a phenomenon or experience; “what is the meaning of the experience of this phenomenon for this person or group of people?”


4. unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Grounded theory: Develop a theory after gathering and analyzing the data


  • 5. unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Participatory research: Co-research the issue cooperatively


Participatory research
Participatory research unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Cooperative inquiry

  • Participatory action research


Clinical research
Clinical Research unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Understand a problem within a clinical context.

  • Focus on aspect of medical

  • Belong to case study


Focus groups
Focus groups unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Observe the interaction within the group (e.g., group interviews)

  • Advantage : have more chance to get the information.

  • Disadvantage : the former respondent may influenced the neutral participants’ idea.


General methodological guidelines
General Methodological Guidelines unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • The researcher is the instrument

  • Speaking for the other

  • Focus on an area of inquiry

  • Explore research sites

  • Gaining permission

  • Negotiating entry

  • Entering the field

  • Role of the researcher


The researcher is the instrument
The researcher is the instrument unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • what questions to ask

  • in what order

  • what to observe

  • what to write down

  • key person to collect and interpret data


Speaking for the other
Speaking for the other unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Retell someone’s story or experiences in a new way (re-writing)

  • Image yourself as the participants

  • Tell the story in your own words


Focus on an area of inquiry
Focus on an area of inquiry unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Explore the topic based on literature review and research questions (tentative)

  • According the literature review let you have a picture in mind.


Explore research sites
Explore research sites unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Stay the place (location) you do the study for a longer time to collect the information about its background, etc that related your research.


Gaining permission
Gaining permission unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Try to get permission (agreements) from the “gatekeepers” (those with power and authority)

  • e.g. parents, principal, etc


Negotiating entry
Negotiating entry unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • How to get the true information with protection of human beings and their organization

  • How to protect your participants when your research is sensitive. (e.g. homosexual, AIDS, etc)


Entering the field
Entering the field unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Make plans to enter the field in the least disruptive manner

  • Ex: when you have to go to elementary school, you can make a promise that you won’t interfere the class and give the detail about your plan to the school.


Role of the researcher
Role of the researcher unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Unbiased, objective, discover multiple views of the participants; more interactive

    1. Supervisor (with authority)

    2. Leader (e.g., scout leaders)

    3. Friend (with respect)


Critically analyzing qualitative research
Critically Analyzing unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Qualitative Research

  • When you get the information you want, how should you analyze the data?

    • Credibility

    • Transferability

    • Dependability

    • Confirmability

    • Authenticity

    • Transformative Paradigm Criteria


Credibility
Credibility unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Internal validity (a correspondence between how the researcher observes and participants express viewpoints)

    1. Prolonged and substantial engagement: give enough time for yourself to stay in the environment.


2 unique qualities exhibited by individuals.. Persistent observation : Sufficient observation until identifying clear issues/picture

e.g. observe your participants’ facial expression, why they give the answer, and so on.

3. Peer debreifing : Discuss with the disinterested peers for better research ideas

e.g. your research is too broad or your idea is unclear, etc


4 unique qualities exhibited by individuals.. Negative case analysis: If the finding doesn’t fit the hypothesis, seek more information and analyze the negative case.

negative case = minority’s idea

5. Progressive subjectivity: Be open-minded and keep changing if necessary


6. unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Member checks: if your result of quantitative and qualitative have some inconsistency, you should discuss with other (teachers or classmates).

7. Triangulation: Check information from different sources or methods to find consistency


Transferability
Transferability unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Thick description (provide sufficient details such as time, place, context) and multiple cases for external validity (generalize the results to other similar situation)

  • To analyze your result can be applied in other situation or not.


Dependability
Dependability unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Reliability (maintain the same result without change no matter tested how many times)

Confirmability

  • Objectivity (provide evidences by synthesizing data instead of researcher’s imagination) without your subjective idea.


Authenticity
Authenticity unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Present a balanced view of all values and beliefs

    1. Fairness: Display different views (pros and cons)

    2. Ontological authenticity: Show individual’s real experiences

    3. Catalytic authenticity: Get evidences of participants’ views by the “inquiry” process


Transformative paradigm criteria
Transformative Paradigm Criteria unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

  • Positionality or standpoint epistemology :

    1. The research result can not contain all universal truth because a lot of factors may influence the result;

    2. should avoid showing the position or standpoint of the author ( e.g. I, You)


  • Community : unique qualities exhibited by individuals.

    1. Know the research site well to link the research results to positive action within that community

    2. To know more about you participants’ group, location, etc, and the result you get will more correct and objective.


  • Attention to voice unique qualities exhibited by individuals.: Speak for the minority

    The minority’s idea may be important, too

  • Critical reflexivity: Be sensitive to understand the psychological state of participants

    To know more what your participants think in their mind


  • Reciprocity unique qualities exhibited by individuals.: Develop trust with participants

  • Sharing the perquisites of privilege: Share research results


Thanks for you attention
unique qualities exhibited by individuals.Thanks for you attention*


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