Protozoa
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Protozoa. General characteristic of the Protozoa are : 1- Unicellular ( consist of one cell ) this cell performs all phsiological function ( activities ) of life such as locomation , reproduction , respiration , ingestion , digestion and excretion .

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Protozoa

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Protozoa

Protozoa

General characteristic of the Protozoa are :

1- Unicellular ( consist of one cell ) this cell performs all phsiological function ( activities ) of life such as locomation , reproduction , respiration , ingestion , digestion and excretion .

2- They vary in size and shape some are visible while others require high magnification ( by microscope ) .

3- The majority of protozoa are free living but some are parasitic .

4- Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in protozoa ( the majority of protozoa reproduce by asexual reproduction ) .


Protozoa

Class : Mastigophora.Order:kinetoplastidaFamily: trypanosomatidaeGenus:trypanosomaDisease:typansomiasis.1- T.gambiense :cause African sleeping sickness in human. 2- T .crusi :cause chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in human and dog.3- T .evansi : cause surra disease of all domestic animals.4- T. equiperdum: cause Dourine disease in horse & donky .


Protozoa

Transmission or intermediet hosts (vector):-

T .brucei

T .gambiensetsetse fly (glossina).

T .rhodesiense

T .evansitabanus (horse fly).

T .cruzi kissing bug (panstrongylus).

T.equiperdumtransmition by coitus .

Trypanosoma are present in blood , lymph , lymphnodes and cerebrospinal fluid .trypanosoma is multiply by longitudinal binary fission.


Protozoa

Trypanosoma can be divided in to two groups:-

Salivaria groupsstercoraria groups

T .bruceiT.cruzi

T .gambienseT.lewsi

T .rhodesienseT.theileri

T .evansi

T .equiperdum


Protozoa

Morphology :-

1-trypanosmes is an elongated , spindle-shape cell with a single nucleus near the middle of parasite.

2-it has kinetoplast.

3-it has undulating membrane.

4-possess a slender-single flagella at the anterior end.

5-flagellum serve as organ of attachment and locomotion.

6-there are four stages in life cycle :-

A –trypomastigote:-postnuclearkinetoplast , flagellum start from anterior end with undulating membrane , found in vertebrate and insects .

B –epimastigote:-kinetoplast anterior to nucleus flagellum emerging from the body and continuing to the anterior end with short undulating membrane.


Protozoa

C –promastigote:-kinetoplast at the anterior end. Flagellum emerging from anterior end of the body . there is no undulating membrane.

D–amastigote:- spherical or oval in shape without undulating membrane . flagellum not extend from outside the membrane , start from the kinetoplast .

Diagnosis:-

1.blood smear , trypanosomes found in blood.

2.Lymph smear .

3.Serological test .


Protozoa

Trypanosoma cruzi. A, B, C: Trypomastigotes in blood; D, E: epimastigote (with short anterior undulating membrane); F: amastigote colony in heart muscle.


Protozoa

Bug Kissing found in Texas


Protozoa

thanks


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