Protozoa. General characteristic of the Protozoa are : 1- Unicellular ( consist of one cell ) this cell performs all phsiological function ( activities ) of life such as locomation , reproduction , respiration , ingestion , digestion and excretion .
General characteristic of the Protozoa are :
1- Unicellular ( consist of one cell ) this cell performs all phsiological function ( activities ) of life such as locomation , reproduction , respiration , ingestion , digestion and excretion .
2- They vary in size and shape some are visible while others require high magnification ( by microscope ) .
3- The majority of protozoa are free living but some are parasitic .
4- Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in protozoa ( the majority of protozoa reproduce by asexual reproduction ) .
Class : Mastigophora.Order:kinetoplastidaFamily: trypanosomatidaeGenus:trypanosomaDisease:typansomiasis.1- T.gambiense :cause African sleeping sickness in human. 2- T .crusi :cause chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in human and dog.3- T .evansi : cause surra disease of all domestic animals.4- T. equiperdum: cause Dourine disease in horse & donky .
Transmission or intermediet hosts (vector):-
T .gambiensetsetse fly (glossina).
T .evansitabanus (horse fly).
T .cruzi kissing bug (panstrongylus).
T.equiperdumtransmition by coitus .
Trypanosoma are present in blood , lymph , lymphnodes and cerebrospinal fluid .trypanosoma is multiply by longitudinal binary fission.
Salivaria groupsstercoraria groups
1-trypanosmes is an elongated , spindle-shape cell with a single nucleus near the middle of parasite.
2-it has kinetoplast.
3-it has undulating membrane.
4-possess a slender-single flagella at the anterior end.
5-flagellum serve as organ of attachment and locomotion.
6-there are four stages in life cycle :-
A –trypomastigote:-postnuclearkinetoplast , flagellum start from anterior end with undulating membrane , found in vertebrate and insects .
B –epimastigote:-kinetoplast anterior to nucleus flagellum emerging from the body and continuing to the anterior end with short undulating membrane.
C –promastigote:-kinetoplast at the anterior end. Flagellum emerging from anterior end of the body . there is no undulating membrane.
D–amastigote:- spherical or oval in shape without undulating membrane . flagellum not extend from outside the membrane , start from the kinetoplast .
1.blood smear , trypanosomes found in blood.
2.Lymph smear .
3.Serological test .
Trypanosoma cruzi. A, B, C: Trypomastigotes in blood; D, E: epimastigote (with short anterior undulating membrane); F: amastigote colony in heart muscle.