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United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Road infrastructure standards in the UNECE region. High level expert group meeting to validate the report on harmonization of road norms and standards in Africa and the draft Intergovernmental Agreement. Robert Nowak, UNECE, Transport Division.

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Robert Nowak, UNECE, Transport Division

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Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Road infrastructure standards

in the UNECE region

High level expert group meeting to validate the report on harmonization of road norms and standards in Africa and the draft Intergovernmental Agreement

Robert Nowak, UNECE, Transport Division

Addis Ababa, 19 September 2011


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

A regional - and increasingly global – centre for international legal instruments

  • 57 UNECE international transport conventions and agreements

  • - Road, rail, inland waterways and combined transport

  • 5 environmental conventions

  • 35 UNECE trade facilitation recommendations


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNECE legal instruments applied on all continents

Source: http://live.unece.org/trans/maps/number-of-un-transport-conventions-and-agreements-per-country.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/trans/conventn/agreem_cp.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Inland transport infrastructure agreements

at UNECE


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

ROAD

RAIL

COMBINED/INTERMODAL

WATERWAYS


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Declaration - 27 Contracting Parties

Source: http://live.unece.org/trans/maps/un-transport-agreements-and-conventions-01.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Predecessor of the 1975 AGR Agreement (Article 6.3)


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

AGR - 37 Contracting Parties

Source: http://live.unece.org/trans/maps/un-transport-agreements-and-conventions-01.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-SC1-384e.pdf


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-SC1-384e.pdf


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-SC1-384e.pdf


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-SC1-384e.pdf


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

E-road network


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

West-East

North-South


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Class-A roads


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Class-A roads


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Class-B roads


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

1. Motorways

2. Express roads

3. Ordinary roads (X)

Emphasis on safety and traffic flow conditions (min. congestion)


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • - In accordance with the principles set out in international conventions and agreements

  • Non-literal messages to make them comprehensible to road users of any country

  • Latin characters to be used with other alphabets

In accordance with the principles set out in international conventions and agreements


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • Draft Annex III, TAH network:

  • In Africa, there are few Contracting Parties to the 1968 Convention

  • In Africa, there are also few Contracting Parties to the 1949 Protocol on Road Signs and Signals

  • Road sign, signals and road markings should be consistent along the TAH routes

  • Also, they should be consistent within a country

  • UNECE may provide capacity building concerning accession to relevant conventions and agreements to make TAH a success


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/trans/maps/un-transport-agreements-and-conventions-09.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/trans/maps/un-transport-agreements-and-conventions-10.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Tauern, 12 dead, 1999

Mont Blanc, 39 dead, 1999

St. Gotthard, 11 dead, 2001


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • Process:

  • AGR Agreement deposited with the UN Secretary General (Article 17)

  • Amendments considered by the ECE’s Working Party on Road Transport (Articles 7, 8 and 9)

  • SC.1 meets typically once a year


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Process:

  • Need to periodically describe and monitor the AGR network

  • E-road census


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

E-road censuses


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Road infrastructure agreement alone is not enough:

  • A system/network approach

  • Need to develop/apply complementary – to road infrastructure - legal instruments

  • 1968 Conventions on Road Traffic and on Road Signs and Signals

  • Harmonization Convention/TIR – border crossing facilitation; ADR – transport of dangerous goods; CMR – legal liability; Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations; Periodic Inspections


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Source: http://live.unece.org/transport/resources/publications.html


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Borders are important in inter’l transport

Declaration (1950)

AGR (1975)


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

The unpredictability at borders and/or waiting for goods to be released/cleared may be very costly

Bishkek – Warsaw route

Min. border time: 0.4 day

Max. border time: 4.5 days

Min.: 5

Avg.: 11

Max.: 26 hrs

Source: NELTI Final Report, www.iru.org


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Inefficient borders may nullify investment in road infrastructure


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

AGR (1975) Agreement - benefits?


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • Road:

  • High and early interest in integrating and standardizing

  • The 1950 Declaration; substantive revision in 1975 (AGR Agreement)

  • High standards: comprehensive and technically demanding

  • Complemented by other “operational” legal instruments (road traffic, signs and signals, transport of dangerous goods, vehicle harmonization, border crossing facilitation)

  • Complemented by the legal liability regime (CMR Agreement)

  • Ongoing interest and amendments (road safety audits)


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • Road:

  • Dominant and highly competitive transport mode in Europe (80-90% share in passenger/goods transport)

  • Dominant and growing share

  • Interest in Euro-Asian transport; est. 50% trips > 500km

  • New vehicle fleets; EURO environmental standards


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • Rail:

  • AGC developed in 1985; “feasible” standards

  • Rail infrastructure and operations set up on a national basis

  • Gauge width, vehicle loading gauge, electric current differences

  • Different infrastructure, operational/performance and legal standards

  • Two legal (liability) regimes

  • Recently, infrastructure and operations separated


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • Conclusions:

  • E-road network a successful and highly integrated international system - rail transport still fragmented, integration costly and challenging

  • Be ambitious and forward looking – do not set the lowest common denominator standards

  • To assist, avoid deadlines for implementation

  • Start early – the “window of opportunity” may not be available for long

  • Public and private sectors – excellent co-operation when working towards a common objective


Robert nowak unece transport division

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

www.unece.org


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