Innovations in Blade Technology
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Innovations in Blade Technology For Multi-Mega Watt Turbines. Presented by Jose R. Zayas Authored by Tom Ashwill, Jose Zayas, and Paul Veers Sandia National Laboratories.

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Innovations in Blade Technology For Multi-Mega Watt Turbines

Presented by

Jose R. Zayas

Authored by Tom Ashwill, Jose Zayas, and Paul Veers

Sandia National Laboratories

Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company,for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.


Outline
Outline

  • DOE Wind Program Structure

  • SNL Research Focus

  • Numerical Analysis Tools

  • Sub-Scale Blades

  • Active Flow Control and Sensors

  • Future Work

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


U s doe wind program

Sandia Labs

Paul Veers

NREL

R. Thresher, B. Smith

U.S. DOE Wind Program

DOE Headquarters

Stan Calvert

  • Jack Cadogan

  • Linda Silverman

  • Dennis Lin

  • Steve Lindenberg

  • Phil Dougherty

  • Jim Ahlgrimm

  • Laura Miner-Nordstrom

  • Ian Baring-Gould (M&O)

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Sandia national labs research focus
Sandia National Labs Research Focus

  • SNL Blade Technology Research

    • Design innovations

    • Design tools

    • Materials & manufacturing

    • Sub-scale blade design & fabrication

    • Laboratory and field testing

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Blade design advances new concepts

Lightweight Designs

Slender planform

New materials

Load Alleviation

Passive

Sweep

Off-axis fibers

Active control

Individual blade pitch control

Embedded devices

Enhanced Performance

New airfoils

Very thick (high t/c)

Flatbacks

Active devices

Manufacturing

Remote build

Coupon testing

Manufacturing process

Hand lay-up

RTM

Pre-preg

Infusion

Blade Design Advances & New Concepts

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Numerical analysis tools

NuMAD - SNL

ANSYS FEA preprocessor

Linear and non-linear buckling

Dynamic Simulation Tools

FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) – NREL, SNL

Modal representation

Limited degrees of freedom

Used as a preprocessor to ADAMS

ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) – NREL, SNL

Commercial multi body dynamic simulation software

Virtually unlimited degrees of freedom

NASTRAN - SNL

Flutter analysis and predictions

Micon 65 – ADAMS Model

Numerical Analysis Tools

NuMAD FEA Model

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Cfd capabilities

Three-dimensional

Compressible RaNS

CFD Capabilities

  • CFD Codes

    • ARC2D

    • OVERFLOW 2.0y

  • Applications for CFD

    • Airfoil performance predictions

    • Understanding of the effects of embedded devices

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Advance airfoils with highly efficient structure
Advance Airfoils with Highly Efficient Structure

Flatback

Airfoil

Traditional

Airfoil

Flatback Airfoils

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Passive and active blade control
Passive and Active Blade Control

Passive Bend-Twist Coupling

Active Devices

Courtesy: NREL

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Materials manufacturing research
Materials & Manufacturing Research

Carbon Coupon Tests

New Forms – Large & Medium Carbon Tows

Large Database in Collaboration with Montana State University

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Applications of innovations
Applications of Innovations

  • Prototype Sub-scale Blades Manufactured (9 meters)

    • CX-100

      • Carbon spar cap

      • Glass skin and shear web

    • TX-100

      • Carbon triax in skin for bend-twist

      • Constant spar cap thickness

    • BSDS (Blade System Design Study)

      • Flatback airfoils

      • Carbon spar cap

      • Slenderized planform

      • Large scale architecture

      • Highly efficient structural design

  • LWST Phase II Components

    • Knight & Carver

      • 25m blade sweep twist

      • Replacement blades

Subscale Blade Design & Fabrication

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Cx 100 carbon spar cap
CX-100 – Carbon Spar Cap

Manufactured by TPI Composites

Carbon Spar Cap

Root Stud Inserts

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Tx 100 carbon tri ax skin glass spar cap
TX-100 Carbon Tri-ax Skin & Glass Spar-Cap

Manufactured by

TPI Composites

Passive Bend-Twist Coupling – Off Axis Carbon Fiber

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Bsds flatback airfoils
BSDS – Flatback Airfoils

Manufactured by TPI Composites

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Blade test site
Blade Test Site

  • 3 Micon 65/13 (modified)

    • 115 kW generator

    • Stall regulated

    • 55 RPM

    • Heavily Instrumented

      • 15 rotor strain gauges

      • Rotor speed and position

      • Nacelle acceleration

      • Tower instrumentation

  • Inflow Array

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Active flow load control
Active Flow/Load Control

  • Active Load Control on Blade/Turbine can be Achieved by Modifying:

    • Blade incidence angle (pitch)

    • Flow velocity (modification in RPM)

    • Blade length

    • Blade aerodynamic characteristics through:

      • Changes in section shape (aileron, smart materials, microtab)

      • Surface blowing/suction

      • Other flow control techniques (VG’s, surface heating, plasma)

  • SNL Focus on Fast-Acting, Low Actuation Energy Devices

    • Will operate within the boundary layer of the blade

    • Must be rugged and easily implemented

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Sensors
Sensors

  • Focus on Cost Effective Sensors (for lab and field environments)

    • Strain sensors

    • Pressure sensors for airflow measurements

    • Fiber optic sensors

    • Piezo-ceramic

    • Displacement and proximity (blade tip deflection)

  • Sensor Networks

    • Control inputs

    • Damage detection and health monitoring

  • Embedded Sensors

    • Composite structures

    • Exploring possibilities with SNL MEMS facility

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Fiber optics fo research
Fiber Optics (FO) Research

  • Goal: Develop new fiber optic interrogating method to reduce system cost

    • Use FO’s to measure flap and edge bending, as well as twist

    • Relies on using

      tunable filter and

      superluminescent diode

      - Eliminates costly interferometer

    • Temperature compensated

    • Currently under development

  • Partnership with UCDavis

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Future work
Future Work

  • Offshore

    • SeaCon – Seabased Concepts

  • O&M

    • Smarter blades

    • Embedded sensor networks

  • Advanced Controls

  • Materials for Offshore Applications

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Summary
Summary

  • Efforts underway to reduce blade weight growth for larger blades

  • Active control may prove beneficial for future blade designs

  • Coupon testing and sub-scale blades show advantages of carbon hybrid materials

  • New airfoils enable structural and manufacturing improvements in blade designs

  • 3 Sets of sub-scale blades have been manufactured – demonstrate improvements

    • Static testing complete – all blades met or exceeded design goals

    • Fatigue and field testing scheduled

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


Questions ???

EWEC 2006 - Innovative Turbines, Components, Systems and Techniques


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