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The Punic Wars. Rome v. Carthage, 264-146 BC. Carthage was a colony of the Phoenicians and controlled much of the island of Sicily Main cause of Punic Wars was competition for Mediterranean trade Control of Sicily. Large Size Huge navy Great wealth from trade Mercenary army

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Rome v carthage 264 146 bc
Rome v. Carthage, 264-146 BC

  • Carthage was a colony of the Phoenicians and controlled much of the island of Sicily

  • Main cause of Punic Wars was competition for Mediterranean trade

  • Control of Sicily


Advantages carthage rome

Large Size

Huge navy

Great wealth from trade

Mercenary army

(paid soldiers who might not be loyal to Carthage)

Smaller army of loyal citizen soldiers

Warfare their specialty

Recent success controlling the Italian peninsula

Advantages Carthage Rome


1 st punic war 264 to 241 bc
1st Punic War - 264 to 241 BC

  • Fought for control of Sicily & the Mediterranean

  • Most battles at sea

    - Carthage had superior navy

    - Rome builds a navy by copying shipwrecked Carthaginian warship

  • Results: Rome defeats Carthage & receives island of Sicily


The corvus latin for raven or crow
The Corvus (Latin for “raven” or “crow”)

  • Crane/plank on a Roman ship that turned naval battle into a land battle


2 nd punic war 218 bc
2nd Punic War - 218 BC

  • Carthaginian military genius Hannibal

  • Led 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, & 60 elephants to invade & conquer Rome

  • Traveled through Spain, France, & the Alps – lost half his men, elephants

  • Strategy was to convince Roman allies to join Carthage


2 nd punic war cont
2nd Punic War (Cont.)

  • For 10 years, battled up and down the Italian peninsula

    - Hannibal & his men lived off the land & by stealing

    - Never able to capture Rome



2 nd punic war cont1
2nd Punic War (cont.)

  • Scipio – Roman general against Hannibal

    - Planned to invade Carthage to force Hannibal to leave Italy & return to N. Africa

  • Defeated Hannibal in 202 BC – Battle of Zama


Battle of zama
Battle of Zama

Scipio Africanus

Hannibal

Hannibal and Scipio meet before the battle


3rd punic war 149 to 146 bc
3rd Punic War: 149 to 146 BC

  • Cato “the Elder” of Rome – “Carthage should be destroyed!”

  • Rome invades Carthage as revenge for Hannibal’s invasion of Italy

  • Carthage is seized & burned – 50,000 inhabitants are sold into slavery


Rome dominates mediterranean by 70 bc
Rome dominates Mediterranean by 70 BC

  • East – conquered Macedonia, Greece, & Anatolia

  • West – as far as Spain

  • Republic dominates the . . . “known world”


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