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Nuclear Power: Fusion reactions and Fusion energy (NIF,ITER). Dresden, 13.12.2011 Martin Rehwald. Outline. 1. The Fusion Reaction (Conditions, Binding energy, Lawson criterion) 2. Fusion Energy Magnetic confinement fusion (ITER) Inertial confinement fusion (NIF).

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Outline

1. The Fusion Reaction (Conditions, Binding energy,

Lawson criterion)

2. Fusion Energy

Magnetic confinement fusion (ITER)

Inertial confinement fusion (NIF)


The fusion reaction
The Fusion Reaction

Nuclear fusion is a process by which two atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus.

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+

+

+

+

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Conditions for nuclear fusion
Conditions for Nuclear Fusion

Electromagnetic Coulomb Force

Nuclei repulse each other

Strong Interaction

Bind protons and neutrons together

At atomic scale it is about 100 times stronger, than electromagnetism

Range: 1 to 3 fm (femtometer)

+

+

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Sun 1 5 10 k

Sun: 1.5*10⁷ K

Coulomb barrier

Pic 1

¹ http://burro.cwru.edu/Academics/Astr221/StarPhys/coulomb.gif


Quantum tunnelling
Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunneling:

Particles can, with a very small probability, tunnel through a barrier.


Mass defect:

Sum of mass of protons and neutrons > measured mass of reaction products

binding energy = mass defect * c²

Pic 1

Fission

Fusion

¹ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Binding_energy_curve_-_common_isotopes.svg


Energy density
Energy density

p – p reaction :



Lawson criterion
Lawson criterion

The Lawson criterion defines the conditions needed for a fusion reactor to reach ignition.

For D – T Reaction:


Magnetic confinement fusion mcf
Magnetic confinement fusion (MCF)

Fusion energy

Pic 1

Pic 2

¹http://www.ipp.mpg.de/de/images/pic/images_bereiche/allgemein/380x265/ionen.gif

²http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/toroid.html


Pic 3

Stellarator

Tokamak

Pic 2

Pic 1

¹http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/understandingfusion/whatisfusion/Whatisfusion_3.jpg

²http://www.weltderphysik.de/_img/article_large/20081015_Stellarator_MPIfPlasmaphysik.jpg

³http://www.lpp.fr/IMG/jpg/tore-3.jpg


Iter design
ITER Design

Central Solenoid

Blanket Module

Outer Intercoil Structure

Vacuum Vessel

Toroidal Field Coil

Poloidal Field Coil

¹http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/yeun4d0/public_html/Images/ITER1.jpg


Inertial confinement fusion icf
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

Blowoff

Compression

Burn

¹http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inertial_confinement_fusion.svg


Direct Drive:

Laser Beams are focused onto the surface of the target

Indirect Drive

Laser Beams are focused at the inner site of the cylinder

cylindrical hohlraum made of gold

Laser Beam

Target

Target, filled with a deuterium tritium (D-T) mixture

http://www.dpg-physik.de/dpg/gliederung/fv/p/info/pix/Pellet.jpg


Sources
Sources

Books:

Gerthsen Physik 21. Ausgabe, Springer-Velag

Kernphysik 2.Auflage: Bethge, Walter, Wiedemann, Springer-Verlag

Teilchen und Kerne: Povh, Rith, Scholz, Zetsche

World wide Web:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_tunnelling

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fusion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_energy

http://www.dpg-physik.de/dpg/gliederung/fv/p/info/index.html

http://www2.fz-juelich.de/portal/forschung/highlights/kernfusion

http://www.ipp.mpg.de/ippcms/de/index.html

https://lasers.llnl.gov/

http://www.iter.org/


Sources1
Sources

Picture:

http://burro.cwru.edu/Academics/Astr221/StarPhys/coulomb.gif

http://nige.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/curve-of-binding-energy.gif

http://www.ipp.mpg.de/de/images/pic/images_bereiche/allgemein/380x265/ionen.gif

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/toroid.html

http://www.lpp.fr/IMG/jpg/tore-3.jpg

http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/understandingfusion/whatisfusion/Whatisfusion_3.jpg

http://www.weltderphysik.de/_img/article_large/20081015_Stellarator_MPIfPlasmaphysik.jpg

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/yeun4d0/public_html/Images/ITER1.jpg

http://www.dpg-physik.de/dpg/gliederung/fv/p/info/pix/Pellet.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Binding_energy_curve_-_common_isotopes.svg


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