Neoplasia

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IncidenceUSA- 1.5 million/yr.World - 10million/yr.Rx response Usually expressed as= 5 year survival rateNeoplasia? New growth Tumor ?swelling caused by inflammationOncology? the study of tumors or neoplasiasCancer? all malignant tumorsLatin crabClonal ?single population of cellsNomen

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Neoplasia

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1. Neoplasia

2. Incidence USA- 1.5 million/yr. World - 10million/yr. Rx response Usually expressed as= 5 year survival rate Neoplasia? “New growth “ Tumor ?swelling caused by inflammation Oncology? the study of tumors or neoplasias Cancer? all malignant tumors Latin – crab Clonal ?single population of cells Nomenclature Neoplasms have two components Parenchyma= neoplastic cells decides behavior & Pathologic consequences Stroma= Supportive ( connective tissue & Vessels) Determines Growth & Evolution Soft & fleshy neoplasm? Scant stroma Desmoplasia= abundant stroma ( collagen) Scirrhous= stony hard ( Ca. Breast)

3. Neoplasia- Nomenclature Benign Mesenchymal Easy =Cell origin + oma Chondro + Oma = Chondroma {Cartilage} Fibro + Oma = Fibroma {Fibroblast} Lipo + Oma = Lipoma {Fat/ lipocyte / adipocyte} Epithelial Not easy Adenoma ? benign epithelial tumor derived from or present with glandular pattern Papilloma ? finger-like or warty projections from the epithelial surfaces (MC - skin) Polyp ? fist-like projection from mucosal epithelial surfaces( MC - colon) Cystadenomas: forms large cystic mass (ovaries) Papillary cystadenoma: papillary patterns that protrude into the cystic spaces (ovaries)

4. Benign -Epithelial

5. Mesenchymal Leiomyoma

6. Malignant tumors

7. Carcinoma

8. Pleomorphic adenoma - Salivary gland

9. Teratoma

10. Neoplasia- Nomenclature Malignant Mesenchymal Easy =Sarcoma Greek = “fleshy” ( little stroma) Chondro + sarcoma = Chondrosarcoma {Cartilage} Fibro + sarcoma = Fibrosarcoma {Fibroblast} Lipo + sarcoma = Liposarcoma {Fat/ lipocyte / adipocyte} Rhabdomyo +sarcoma = Rhabdomyosarcoma {striated muscle} Epithelial Not easy =carcinoma (any germ layer) Adenocarcinoma? glandular growth pattern Squamous cell carcinoma? squamous cell differentiation specify organ of origin ?Renal cell adenocarcinoma, Bronchogenic Undifferentiated/ poorly differentiated ?Can’t determine tissue of origin Mixed tumors ?Pleomorphic adenoma Divergent differentiation of a single germ line of parenchymal cells (salivary gland) Teratoma ? From Totipotential cells (gonads), > one germ layer { Dermoid cyst ? ovary}

11. Malignant tumors

12. Nomenclature contd.. Epithelial = Malignant Melanoma? Carcinoma of Melanocytes Seminoma? Testicular carcinoma (seminiferous tubules) Hepatoma? Hepatocellular carcinoma (Hepatocytes) Choriostoma ? Ectopic normal tissue (Adrenal tissue in kidney, Pancreatic rests in GIT) Hamartoma ? Mature native cells of organ but grow as disorganized mass (benign : example =Lisch nodules)

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