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Section 3.6. BUILT-IN FUNCTIONS involving numbers & strings. Functions - terminology. Functions are called from within a procedure. e.g., Sqr(x) is a function call A function receives 1 or more input values & returns a unique output value n = Left (string, 3).

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Section 3.6

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Section 3 6

Section 3.6

BUILT-IN FUNCTIONS

involving numbers & strings


Functions terminology

Functions - terminology

  • Functions arecalled from within a procedure.

    • e.g., Sqr(x) is a function call

  • A function receives 1 or more input values & returns auniqueoutput value

    n = Left (string, 3)

Output assigned to n

Function name

input


Numeric functions

Numeric functions

  • Sqr

  • Int

  • Round

  • Rnd


Numeric functions sqr

Numeric functions - Sqr

  • Sqr (n) : returns the square root of n.

    • requires exactly one positive numeric input value

    • may contain an expression for n

  • Examples: assumen = 25

    Sqr (16) returns 4

    Sqr (2) returns 1.414214

    Sqr (n) returns 5

    Sqr (n + 11) returns 6

    Sqr (-4) returns an error


Numeric functions int

Numeric functions - Int

  • Int (n) returns the greatest integer less than or equal to n

    • requires exactly one integer input value

    • n may be a numeric expression

  • Examples: assume n is 10

    Int (5.2) returns 5

    Int (-6.7) returns -7

    Int (n + 15) returns 25


Numeric functions round

Numeric functions - Round

  • How numbers are rounded to integers:

    • 23.7 rounds up to 24

    • 23.4 rounds down to 23

    • 23.5 rounds up to 24

      nRound (n)

      1.3 1

      1.7 2

      -1.6-2

      .2 0


Another format for round

Another format for Round

  • Round (2.357, 2) returns 2.36

  • Round (1234.97899, 2) returns 1234.98

  • This variation of Round is useful when our programs are processing monetary values.

  • Example:

    Private Sub Command1_Click()

    Picture1.Print Round(txtNum.Text, 2)

    End Sub


Two mathematical operators that are useful in programs

Two mathematical operators that are useful in programs

  • If x & y are integers, then the integer quotient of x divided by y can be found by using \

    quotient = x \ y

  • Also, to get the remainder, use mod:

    remainder = x mod y

  • try it with: x = 26; y = 7


Numeric functions rnd

Numeric functions - Rnd

  • Used to enable your program to generate pseudorandom values; useful in the creation of games.

  • Rnd does not require any input value and returns a numeric value r where 0 <= r < 1

Int (Rnd * 10)will generate

a value that is between 0 & 9


Some uses of rnd

Some uses of Rnd

  • Randomly generate an integer between 1 & 10:

    x = 1 + Int(10 * Rnd)

  • Randomly generate a 0 or 1:

    x = Int (2 * Rnd)

  • Randomly generate evens between 0 & 98:

    x = 2 * Int (50 * Rnd)

    more...


More uses of rnd

More uses of Rnd

  • Randomly generate

    • a lowercase alphabetic character

    • an uppercase alphabetic character

    • the uppercase alphabetic characters between A & J


Still more examples of rnd

Still more examples of Rnd

  • Randomly generate an integer between

    • 1 & 10

    • 3 & 23

    • 0 & 100 evens only

    • 5 & 75 divisible by 5

  • Randomly generate

    • a lowercase alphabetic character

    • an uppercase alphabetic character

    • p. 132: #116, 117


Section 3 6

Lab

  • Page 132 # 121

  • Page 133 #122, 124


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