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Learning Objectives. How do customers perceive marketing communications? Why are some media channels growing while others are shrinking? How should firms use marketing metrics to plan for and measure IMC success?

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Learning Objectives

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Learning Objectives

  • How do customers perceive marketing communications?

  • Why are some media channels growing while others are shrinking?

  • How should firms use marketing metrics to plan for and measure IMC success?

  • Why are some governmental agencies and consumer groups concerned about certain innovative IMC strategies?

Coke Zero

How did Coke Zero deliver the “masculine” message?

Coke Zero/NASCAR Commercial

Integrated Marketing Communications

Communication channel

Communicating with Consumers: The Communication Process

How Consumers Perceive Communication

Decoding the Message

The AIDA Model

AIDA Model


  • Senders first must gain the attention of the consumers

  • A multichannel approach increases the likelihood the message will be received


  • After the customer is aware, they must be persuaded

  • The customer must want to further investigate the product/service



Lagged Effect

  • Advertising does not always have an immediate impact

  • Multiple exposures are often necessary

  • It is difficult to determine which exposure led to purchase

Check Yourself

What are the different steps in the communication process?

What is the AIDA model?

Elements of an Integrated Communication Strategy


  • Most visible element of IMC

  • Extremely effective at creating awareness and generating interest

Terry Tate/Reebok Commercial

Personal Selling

  • Some products require the help of a salesperson

  • More expensive than other forms of promotion

  • Salespeople can add significant value, which makes the expense worth it

Sales Promotions

  • Can be aimed at both end user consumers or channel members

  • Used in conjunction with other forms of IMC

  • Can be used for both short-term and long-term objectives

Retailmenot.com Website

Direct Marketing

  • Growing element of IMC

  • Includes e-mail and m-commerce

  • Good for multicultural groups

  • Database technology improves

Public Relations (PR)

  • “Free” media attention

  • Importance of PR has grown as cost of other media has increased

  • Consumers becoming more skeptical about marketing, PR becoming more important


Electronic Media

Electronic Media - Websites

Electronic Media – Corporate blogs

Electronic Media – Social Shopping

Shopstyle.com Website

Electronic MediaOnline Games and Community Building

Check Yourself

What are the different elements of an IMC program?

Planning and Measuring IMC Success

  • Understand the outcome they hope to achieve before they begin

  • Short-term or long-term

  • Should be explicitly defined and measured


Rule of Thumb Methods

Measuring Success

Online Measurements

Search Engine Marketing

La Bodega is a small upscale sneaker store in downtown Seattle that targets well educated, hip, young men and women

La Bodega Click through results

What does the data tell you?

La Bodega IMC goals and results

Check Yourself

What are three rule-of-thumb methods used for setting IMC budgets?

How would a firm evaluate the effectiveness of its Google advertising?

Legal and Ethical Issues in IMC

Clicks, as in mouse clicks, are used to assess the effectiveness of advertising expenditures.


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The click through rate (CTR) is the number of clicks divided by the number of impressions.


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The frequency of exposure is how often the audience is exposed to a communication within a specified period of time.


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Gross rating points (GRP) represents reach multiplied by frequency.


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The number of impressions is the number of times an ad appears in front of a user.


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The objective-and-task method determines the budget required to undertake specific tasks to accomplish communication objectives.


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Online couponing is a promotional Web technique in which consumers print a coupon directly from a site and then redeem the coupon in a store.


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Online referring is when consumers fill out an interest or order form and are referred to an offline dealer or firm that offers the product or service of interest.


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Reach is the percentage of the target population exposed to a specific marketing communication at least once.


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The return on investment (ROI) is the difference of the sales revenue and the advertising cost divided by the advertising cost.


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Rule-of-thumb methods use prior sales and communication activities to determine the present communication budget.


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Social shopping is a communication channel in which consumers use the Internet to engage in the shopping process by engaging preferences, thoughts, and opinions among friends, family, and others.


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Web tracking software indicates how much time viewers spend on particular Web pages and the number of pages they view.


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