Chromosomes
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Chromosomes. Chromosomes. Defined : Tightly coiled DNA Form when cells divide Chromosomes created for the new cells 2 Parts: 1) Chromatids : two identical parts of a chromosome 2) Centromere : Joins chromatids together. Karyotype. Female. Defined : Picture of an individuals chromosomes

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Chromosomes

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Chromosomes


Chromosomes

  • Defined: Tightly coiled DNA

  • Form when cells divide

    • Chromosomes created for the new cells

  • 2 Parts:

    • 1) Chromatids: two identical parts of a chromosome

    • 2) Centromere: Joins chromatids together


Karyotype

Female

  • Defined: Picture of an individuals chromosomes

    • Help identify sex & chromosome defects

  • Size of final pair identifies sex

    • Same size: XX = female

    • Different size: XY = male

  • Normal human will have 46 chromosomes

Male


Down Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Writing notation:

    • 1st: total chromosome #

    • 2nd: Sex chromosomes

    • 3rd: extra or missing

  • Down Syndrome

47,

XY,

+21


Turner’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Turner’s Syndrome.

  • 45, X, -23

  • or

  • 45, XO, -23


Patau’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Patau’s Syndrome.

  • 47, XY, +13


Klinefelter’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Klinefelter’s Syndrome.

    47, XXY, +23


Diploid Cells

  • Diploid Cells = Cells with the full set of chromosomes

    • Paired chromosomes

  • Half of our chromosomes come from each parent (23 from each parent)

  • Somatic (non-sex) cells are diploid

  • Created by mitosis

  • Ex: Skin, Muscle, Nerve, Blood Cells


Haploid Cells

  • Haploid Cells = Cells with ½ the total number of chromosomes

  • Gametes (sex cells) are the only haploid cells

    • Ex: Sperm, Egg, Pollen

  • Created by meiosis

    • Chromosome number reduced by 1/2

  • How do humans get 46 chromosomes?

Haploid sperm cell (23)

+ Haploid egg cell (23)

= Diploid zygote (46)


Diploid vs. Haploid Karyotypes


How many chromosomes are in brain cells?

Remember…Brain cells are non-sex cells…

…Somatic cells are non-sex cells…

…Somatic cells are diploid…

…Diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes

Answer = 46


What is the human haploid chromosome number?

Remember…Haploid = half number of chromosomes

Answer = 23 chromosomes


How many chromosomes are in female egg cells?

Remember…Egg cells are sex cells…

…Sex cells are gametes…

…Gamete cells are haploid…

…Haploid cells have ½ the set of chromosomes

Answer = 23


What is the human diploid chromosome number?

Remember…Diploid = total number of chromosomes

Answer = 46


What is the human gamete chromosome number?

Remember…Gamete cells are sex cells…

…Sex cells are haploid…

…Haploid cells have ½ the set of chromosomes

Answer = 23


What is the human somatic chromosome number?

Remember…Somatic cells are non-sex cells…

…Somatic cells are diploid…

…Diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes

Answer = 46


Rat

Karyotype

What is the diploid chromosome number?

42


Rat

Karyotype

What is the haploid chromosome number?

21


Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in somatic cells?

42


Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in brain cells?

42


Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in gamete cells?

21


Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in egg cells?

21


Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in muscle cells?

42


Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in sperm cells?

21


Rat

Karyotype

  • Is this a male or female rat?

male


Kobe Kuiz

  • 1) What is the difference between chromatin, chromatids, and chromosomes?

  • 2) Name the location where chromatids connect.

  • 3) Examine the karyotype.

    • What the haploid number?

    • Diploid number?

    • Somatic number?

    • Gamete number?

  • 4) Which of the following cells are created by mitosis?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen

  • 5) Which of the following cells are created by meiosis?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen

  • 6) Which of the following cells are haploid?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen

  • 7) Which of the following cells are diploid?

    Skin Nerve Sperm Brain Kidney Stomach Pollen


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