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OT Survey I. Isaiah. “Story” of Isaiah. 1-5 The setting: Sin, judgment, calls to repentance then “call” to distant nation (Assyria) 6 Isaiah’s call: The proper response to God’s holiness and impending judgment on sin

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OT Survey I

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Ot survey i

OT Survey I

Isaiah


Story of isaiah

“Story” of Isaiah

  • 1-5 The setting: Sin, judgment, calls to repentance then “call” to distant nation (Assyria)

  • 6 Isaiah’s call: The proper response to God’s holiness and impending judgment on sin

  • {Whitespace between chapters 6 & 7} Israel and Syria’s response to God’s impending judgment

  • 7:1-12 Ahaz’s response: Despite God’s promise, I’ll trust in the one sent to judge me!

  • 7:13 - 8:18 Result of Ahaz’s response: Israel/Syria will fail, and Assyria will devastate all of Judah except Jerusalem.

  • 9 - 12 A better future: A coming ruler who will trust in Yahweh


Story of isaiah cont

“Story” of Isaiah (cont…)

  • 13-27 Oracles against the nations: Other nations not trustworthy because they too are going to be judged

  • 28-35 The Lesson: So, don’t trust in them!

  • 36-39 The Illustration: Hezekiah exemplifies trust, but unfortunately trusted in Babylon first

  • 40-48 Return: God will send Cyrus to bring Israel home

  • 49-57 Redemption: God will send a suffering servant to bring Israel atonement for their sins

  • 58-66 Restoration: God will send a conquering avenger to destroy rebels and restore justice.


Isaiah and earlier revelation

Isaiah and Earlier Revelation

  • Micah 2:2 – They covet fields and then seize them, And houses, and take them away. They rob a man and his house, A man and his inheritance.

  • Lev 26:31-32 –I will lay waste your cities as well, and will make your sanctuaries desolate . . . and I will make the land desolate” (cf. Deut 28:30)

  • Deut 28:38-40 – You shall bring out much seed to the field but you shall gather in little, for the locust shall consume it. You shall plant and cultivate vineyards, but you shall neither drink of the wine nor gather the grapes, for the worm shall devour them.

  • Deut 28:49-50 –The LORD will bring a nation against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as the eagle swoops down, a nation whose language you shall not understand, a nation of fierce countenance who shall have no respect for the old, nor show favor to the young.


Isaiah and earlier revelation cont

Isaiah and Earlier Revelation (cont…)

  • Deuteronomy 30:1-3 – So it shall be when all of these things have come upon you, the blessing and the curse which I have set before you, and you call them to mind in all nations where the LORD your God has banished you, and you return to the LORD your God and obey Him with all your heart and soul according to all that I command you today, you and your sons, then the LORD your God will restore you from captivity, and have compassion on you, and will gather you again from all the peoples where the LORD your God has scattered you

  • Rom 15:8-12 – Christ has become a servant to the circumcision on behalf of the truth of God to confirm the promises given to the fathers, and for the Gentiles to glorify God for His mercy; as it is written, "Therefore I will give praise to Thee among the Gentiles, And I will sing to Thy name.“ And again he says, "Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people.“ And again, "Praise the Lord all you Gentiles, And let all the peoples praise Him.“ And again Isaiah says, "There shall come the root of Jesse, And He who arises to rule over the Gentiles, In Him shall the Gentiles hope."

  • Isa 61:8 – I will make an everlasting covenant with them (cf. 42:6; 49:8; 54:10; 55:3; 59:21)


Isaiah and earlier revelation cont1

Isaiah and Earlier Revelation (cont…)

Few Old Testament books match Isaiah’s ability to use received Biblical theology while introducing new theological concepts. Placed strategically at the beginning of the Latter Prophets, this book reflects the major ideas already divulged in the Law and the Former Prophets. Isaiah discusses covenant giving and covenant breaking, the role of the prophets in warning and encouraging the chosen people, God’s sovereignty over all nations and the Davidic promises, to name just a handful of relevant topics. At the same time, the prophecy links the remnant and the future, the eternal nature of the Davidic kingdom and the contemporary sins of that institution and the interaction between God and the Gentiles in ways not yet seen in the canon. This meshing and shaping of the new and the old makes Isaiah a formidable theological document.

Paul House, Old Testament Theology, p. 272


Structure of isaiah

Structure of Isaiah

As many times before, much of this material comes from David A. Dorsey, The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary on Genesis-Malachi.

See pages 217-235.


Structure of isaiah1

Structure of Isaiah

  • 1-12: Introductory messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration

  • 13-27: Oracles to nations: Humiliation of proud king of Babylon

    Babylon

  • 28-35: Collection of woes: Don’t trust in earthly powers!

  • 36-39: Historical narratives

  • 40-48: Yahweh’s supremacy over idols: Don’t trust in idols!

  • 49-54: Servant messages: Exaltation of the humble servant

  • 55-66: Concluding messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration


Structure of isaiah2

Structure of Isaiah

  • 1-12: Introductory messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration

  • 13-27: Oracles to nations: Humiliation of proud king of Babylon

    Babylon

  • 28-35: Collection of woes: Don’t trust in earthly powers!

  • 36-39: Historical narratives

  • 40-48: Yahweh’s supremacy over idols: Don’t trust in idols!

  • 49-54: Servant messages: Exaltation of the humble servant

  • 55-66: Concluding messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration


Structure of isaiah cont

Structure of Isaiah (cont…)

Isaiah 1-12

Isaiah 55-66

  • At the beginning has a call to repentance and a promise of forgiveness (55:1, 7)

  • Speaks of God hiding from them and not answering their prayers since their hands are defiled by blood (59:1-3)

  • The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, the lion shall eat straw like the ox…They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain (65:25)

  • [Last Verse] Then they shall go forth and look On the corpses of the men Who have transgressed ([vP) against Me. For their worm shall not die, And their fire shall not be quenched; And they shall be an abhorrence to all mankind.

  • At the beginning has a call to repentance and a promise of forgiveness (1:18)

  • Speaks of God hiding from them and not answering their prayers since their hands covered with blood (1:15)

  • “The wolf shall dwell with the lamb…and the lion shall eat straw like the ox…They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain” (11:6-9)

  • [First Verse] “Listen, O heavens, and hear, O earth; For the LORD speaks, "Sons I have reared and brought up, But they have revolted ([vP) against Me”


Structure of isaiah cont1

Structure of Isaiah (cont…)

  • 1-12: Introductory messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration

  • 13-27: Oracles to nations: Humiliation of proud king of Babylon

    Babylon

  • 28-35: Collection of woes: Don’t trust in earthly powers!

  • 36-39: Historical narratives

  • 40-48: Yahweh’s supremacy over idols: Don’t trust in idols!

  • 49-54: Servant messages: Exaltation of the humble servant

  • 55-66: Concluding messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration


Structure of isaiah cont king of babylon kob vs suffering servant ss

Structure of Isaiah (cont…)King of Babylon (KOB) vs. Suffering Servant (SS)

  • KOB smote peoples (14:6); SS was smitten (53:4-5, 10)

  • KOB oppressed peoples; SS was oppressed (53:7-8)

  • KOB is wicked (14:5), filled with pomp and splendor (14:11), and is feared by all (14:16); SS is righteous (53:11), has no form or comeliness (53:2), and is despised and not esteemed (53:3)

  • KOB begins with high aspirations (14:13-14) but is brought down to Sheol (14:15); SS begins in humility (53:2) but is later highly exalted (52:13)

  • KOB dies and his life is over (14:18-20); SS dies but shall prolong his life and even later have great reward (53:10-12)

  • Seed of KOB will be cut off (14:20-22); SS is cut off but will see his seed (53:8-10)

  • Neither buried in own tomb, but KOB cast out (14:18-20) whereas SS buried in tomb of rich (53:9)

  • Dead kings of earth arise to meet KOB then mock him (14:9-20); Kings of earth see servant, arise and bow down before him (49:7)


Structure of isaiah cont2

Structure of Isaiah (cont…)

  • 1-12: Introductory messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration

  • 13-27: Oracles to nations: Humiliation of proud king of Babylon

    Babylon

  • 28-35: Collection of woes: Don’t trust in earthly powers!

  • 36-39: Historical narratives

  • 40-48: Yahweh’s supremacy over idols: Don’t trust in idols!

  • 49-54: Servant messages: Exaltation of the humble servant

  • 55-66: Concluding messages of condemnation, pleading, and future

    restoration


Structure of isaiah cont historical narrative 36 39

Structure of Isaiah (cont…)Historical Narrative (36-39)

a Arrival of the hostile Assyrian emissary

  • Assyrian king sends envoy to Hezekiah with threatening msg & army

  • Hezekiah does not receive them into the city or give them a reply

    b Hezekiah’s distress and appeal to Yahweh for help

    • Begins: Hezekiah hears bad news of Assyrian message

    • Hezekiah asks Isaiah to pray to Yahweh for help

    • Isaiah reassures Hezekiah that Yahweh will deliver him from king

      c Sennacherib’s blasphemous message: Yahweh can’t deliver you!

      d Hezekiah’s prayer to Yahweh: “Save us…that all may know that you alone, Yahweh, are God.

      c’ Yahweh’s response to Sennacherib: Yahweh delivers Jerusalem!

      b Hezekiah’s sickness and appeal to Yahweh for help

    • Begins: Hezekiah hears bad news of his approaching death

    • Hezekiah prays directly to Yahweh for help

    • Isaiah reassures Hezekiah that Yahweh will deliver him from king and add 15 years of life

      a Arrival of the friendly Babylonian emissaries (irony!)

  • Babylonian king sends envoys to Hezekiah with peacefull msg & gift

  • Hezekiah welcomes them into the city and shows them all his treasures.


Major themes

Major Themes

  • The holiness of Yahweh

    • “Holy” (or some form of this word) used 68 times in 66 chapters

    • “Holy one of Israel” used 25 times, only 6 other times in all of OT (once by Isaiah himself, 2 in Jeremiah, 3 in Psalms)

    • On the one hand, His holiness bespeaks His separation from sin (Isaiah 6!, e.g.)

    • On the other hand, His holiness bespeaks His separation from all creation. He is different from and greater than all nations or idols, so His people should trust in HIM!


Purpose statement

Purpose Statement

  • As the holy God, Yahweh must punish those who rebel against Him. In addition, as the holy God, He is also—unlike the nations and other, false gods—able and willing to save those who trust in Him.


Major themes cont

Major Themes (cont…)

  • The salvation (=deliverance) of Yahweh

    • “Isaiah” means Yahweh is salvation

    • Deliverance offered to Ahaz (7)

    • Deliverance from Sennacherib for Hezekiah (37)

    • Deliverance from exile through Cyrus (40-48)

    • Deliverance from sin from suffering servant (49-57)

    • Deliverance from sinners through conqueror (58-66)

    • Deliverance for Gentiles (e.g., 11:10; 19:21-25)!

  • Jerusalem (Zion)

    • The center of God’s future kingdom (2:1-4; 4; 66:20-24)

    • The location of the spared remnant (1:8; 10:20-34; 36-37; cf. 8:8)


Major themes cont1

Major Themes (cont…)

  • The sinfulness of Judah (e.g., 1; 3; 5; 49; 56; 58-59)

  • The Sovereignty of Yahweh

    • Ability to declare things yet future (41:21-23; 42:9; 44:6-8; 45:21; 46:9-11)

    • Ability to declare things from/in the past (41:21-23; 43:9; 44:6-8; 48:3)

  • Trusting in Yahweh and no one else

    • Other nations

    • Other gods


Interpretive issues

Interpretive Issues

  • Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel

  • Isaiah 65:17; 66:22 – New heavens and new earth.


Next week

Next Week

Jeremiah and

Lamentations


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