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Blurred Boundaries: The Future of English Language Learning and Teaching. Dr. Randi Harlev December 2006. Future Trends: The Inevitable Pendulum Swing. Paradigm shifts in English teaching Globalization English in the world English in the US English language teaching and learning

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Blurred boundaries the future of english language learning and teaching

Blurred Boundaries: The Future of English Language Learning and Teaching

Dr. Randi Harlev

December 2006


Future trends the inevitable pendulum swing
Future Trends: The Inevitable Pendulum Swing

  • Paradigm shifts in English teaching

  • Globalization

  • English in the world

  • English in the US

  • English language teaching and learning

    • in the world

    • in the US

  • English language: future trends

  • English language teaching and learning: future trends



Paradigm shifts pendulum swings

Mechanistic Model

Science

Complexity can be reduced

Measurability

Whole = sum of parts

Parts adapt to model

Organismic Model

Change = qualitative, not summative

Change is sudden

Whole > sum of parts

Model adapts to parts

Paradigm Shifts; Pendulum Swings


Pendulum swings learning theories and language learning theories

Skills-Based; Structural

Grammar-Translation

Transmission

Behaviorism

Developmental & Cognitive

Theories

Social

Cognition

Constructivism

Pendulum Swings: Learning Theories and Language Learning Theories

Communi-cative Language Teaching

Notional-Functional

Natural Approach, Task-Based Learning

Audio-lingualism

Standards-Based

Curricula



What do they mean for the future
What do they mean for the future?

CEF?

EFL?

L1?

EYL?

CLIL?

ELF?

ESL?

L2?

EIL?

EAP?

ELL?

ESP?

CBI?

ELT?


What is happening in the world
What is happening in the world?

  • Move towards globalization; people are on the move.

  • Identity is more complex; people take on multiple identities.

  • More and more people speak multiple languages, affecting both identity and culture.

  • Culture is permeable and dynamic, less nation-bound. Individuals reflect cultural “bricolage”.


What aspects of life have both affected and effected these changes
What aspects of life have both affected and effected these changes?

  • Demographic changes

  • Economy

  • Technology

  • Society

  • Languages


What is happening to english
What is happening to English?

  • “There is nothing likely to stop its (English) global spread.” David Crystal

  • “The current wave of English may lose momentum.” David Graddol

  • What’s happening may lead to fragmentation into a “family of languages.” Tom McArthur


English throughout the world
…English throughout the world

  • Blurring of boundaries between native and non-native speakers

    • Close to 2 billion English language learners

    • NNS = 3 x NS

    • Greater tolerance for NNS

  • Globalization of English

    • ELF = English as a lingua franca

    • Fewer international students

  • Decrease in predominance of English on the Internet

  • Greater need for multilingualism (English + regional languages)


From definition by geography to definition by proficiency
From Definition by Geography to Definition by Proficiency

Inner Circle = Native Speakers

Outer Circle = Second Language Speakers

Expanding Circle = Foreign Language Speakers

(Kachru 1985)

Inner Circle = “Functional Nativeness”

Outer Circle = High Proficiency Speakers

Expanding Circle = Low Proficiency Speakers

(Graddol 2006)


Rise in world demand for english
Rise in World Demand for English

Graddol, D. (2006) English Next


English in the us
…English in the US

  • Over 1 million immigrants per year have arrived in the US so far this decade.

  • One in five school-aged children are children of immigrants.

  • NCLB mandates AYP for states and districts.

  • The debate over the status of English in the US is on.


School age children of immigrants
School-Age Children of Immigrants

Capps, et al. (2005). The New Demography of America’s Schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act.


What s happening in washington
What’s happening in Washington?

Odden, A. et al. (2006). An Evidence-based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Washington


Increases in numbers lep children
Increases in Numbers: LEP Children

Odden, A. et al. (2006). An Evidence-based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Washington


What s happening in language teaching and learning
What’s happening in language teaching and learning?

  • Focus on standards-based models: “can-do” objectives

    • TESOL

    • Common European Framework (CEF)

  • Greater emphasis on foreign languages

    • Europe – multilingualism

    • US – heritage languages, immersion programs, bilingual education


And in english teaching
…and in English Teaching?

  • Europe (not UK alone!):

    • English literacy as a core skill – must be taught

    • Emphasis on EYL = English for Young Learners

    • CLIL = Content and Language Integrated Learning

    • Technology = CALL and beyond

  • United States:

    • Content-based instruction

    • SES

    • Technology = CALL and beyond

  • Rest of World

    • Copycat phenomenon – following either Europe or US, often with five to ten year lag

    • Adaptations to cultural needs


Clil in europe
CLIL in Europe

Eurydice. (2006). Content and Language Integrated Learning at School in Europe.


Content based language instruction in the us
Content-Based Language Instruction in the US

Language-driven

Content-driven

Met, M. Retrieved from: http://www.carla.umn.edu:16080/cobaltt/modules/


Technology new tools to enrich teaching
Technology: New Tools to Enrich Teaching

  • Tech-based distance learning courses

  • Tech-embedded blended learning courses

  • Technological Advances

    • Mobile technologies

    • Speech recognition

    • Blogs, wikis, podcasts

    • Voiceover IP

    • Automatic essay graders

  • Online communities of learners and teachers


Future trends teacher training and development
Future Trends: Teacher Training and Development

  • Move from “specialist” to “generalist”

    • Broader base in education

    • Ability to teach wider range of age groups

  • Higher comfort level with technology

    • Access to technology

    • Ongoing professional development courses

  • Teaching of English descriptively rather than prescriptively

  • Eclecticism – awareness of changing paradigms; a rich toolbox of ELT techniques


What s on the horizon
What’s on the Horizon?

Paradigm shift: the pendulum will swing towards a more organismic paradigm

  • Use of standards allowing for differences, while still providing sufficient information to stakeholders.

  • Decreased focus on general, group standards; greater focus on the individual

  • Move from legislation of teaching to focus on learning

  • Move from centralistic control to local control


How can we prepare
How Can We Prepare?

  • Be eclectic.

  • Read, read, read.

  • Attend professional development sessions.

  • Go with the flow – in another ten years, the pendulum will swing back!


References
References

Capps, et al. (2005). The New Demography of America’s Schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act.

Crystal, D. (2006). English worldwide. In R. Hogg and D. Denison (eds), A History of the English Language

Crystal, D. (2006). Toward a Philosophy of Language Management.

Eurydice. (2005). Foreign Language Learning: A European Priority.

Eurydice. (2006). Content and Language Integrated Learning at School in Europe.

Graddol, D. (2006). English Next.

Harlev, R. (2005). Content-based Learning: Challenged Learners, Challenged Teachers, Language Magazine.

Odden, A. et al. (2006). An Evidence-based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Washington.

Short, D.J. and Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners.

Smith, K. (2005). Assessment of Teaching in the Era of Standards: What is Left of Teacher Autonomy?

Underhill, A. (2004). Trends in English Language Teaching Today.

A complete list of references will be provided upon request.


Thank you

Thank you!

“All languages are works in progress. But English’s globalization, unprecedented in the history of language, will revolutionize it in ways we can only begin to imagine.

David Crystal, Newsweek, March 7, 2005, International Edition

Dr. Randi [email protected]


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