Chapter 2 introduction to leadership and management
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Chapter 2: Introduction to Leadership and Management

By: Mohammed Hussien (MPH/HSM)

Wollo University


Chapter Objectives

After completion of this chapter, students will be able to:

  • Discuss the different types of management theories

  • Discuss managerial roles and functions

  • Differentiate the basic concepts and practices of management and leadership

  • Discuss leader shift so as to become a manager who leads


The evolution of management theory


The evolution of management theory

  • Management is such a complex subject that it can be approached from different perspectives or major developments in thought

  • Although these developments, or schools of thought, are different, they do not compete with each other

  • they complement and support each other

  • Well-trained managers select the management ideas that seem to fit the problem at hand

  • The historical approaches laid the foundation for understanding and practicing management


Approaches to management theory

  • the major developments in management thought are:

    • Classical (scientific management and administrative management),

    • Behavioral approach

    • Quantitative approach

    • The systems perspective

    • Contingency schools


Chronological development of management perspectives


1. Classical Schools of Management

  • Bosses used to make decisions haphazardly, without any systematic study, thought, or collection of information

  • there were no

    • procedures to standardize operations,

    • standards by which to judge whether performance was good or bad, and

    • follow-up to determine if productivity or quality actually improved when changes were made

  • This all changed, however, with the advent of classical school of management


Classical Schools of Management...

  • The classical school of management is the original formal approach to studying management.

  • Its followers search for solid principles and concepts that can be used to manage work and people productively

  • As a result, the classical management theory developed from efforts to find the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks

  • This school of thought is made up of two branches:


Classical Schools...

Classical scientific school

  • arose because of the need to increase productivity and efficiency

  • focuses on ways to improve the performance of individual workers (the only way to increase productivity was to increase the efficiency of workers)

  • the application of scientific methods to increase individual workers’ productivity

  • there is always one best way and has to be discovered and put in action


Classical Schools...

Classical administrativeschool

  • Whereas scientific management focused on the productivity of individuals, the classical administrative approach concentrates on the total organization

  • Administrative management was concerned primarily with how organizations should be managed and structured

  • the development of managerial principles in the structuring and managing of an organization, rather than work methods


Classical Schools...

  • H. Fayoldeveloped 14 management principles through which management engaged in planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.

  • These principles provide modern-day managers with general guidelines on how a supervisor should organize her department and manage her staff

  • One example of his principles is unity of command - for any tasks, each worker should receive orders from only one supervisor


2. The Behavioural Approach

  • The classical theory ignored employee motivation and behavior.

  • The behavioral management theory emphasizes improving management through an understanding of the psychological makeup of people

  • It is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work.

  • Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work, such as motivation, conflict and group dynamics improved productivity

  • The primary strength of this approach is - it encourages managers to take into account the human element


The Behavioural Approach...

  • Three cornerstones of the behavioral approach are

    • the Hawthorne studies,

    • Theory X and Theory Y, and

    • Maslow’s need hierarchy.

  • These developments contributed directly to managers’ understanding of the importance of human relations on the job

  • The purpose of the Hawthorne studies was to determine the effects of changes in lighting on productivity


The Behavioural Approach...

  • It was the origin of the phenomenon of Hawthorne effect, which describes the special attention researchers give to a study’s subjects and the impact that attention has on the study’sfindings

  • It is the tendency of people to behave differently in response to perceived attention from evaluators

  • Abraham Maslow, developed one of the most widely recognized need theories, a theory of motivation

  • Maslow suggested that humans are motivated by efforts to satisfy a hierarchy of needs

  • The need hierarchy prompted managers to think about ways of satisfying a wide range of worker needs to keep them motivated


The Behavioural Approach...

  • X and Y theory: the assumptions managers make about human nature.

  • Theory X is a set of traditional assumptions that managers who hold these assumptions are pessimistic about workers’ capabilities.

  • They believe that workers dislike work, seek to avoid responsibility, are not ambitious, and must be supervised closely.

  • Theory Y, poses an optimistic set of assumptions. These assumptions include the idea that people do accept responsibility, can exercise self-control, possess the capacity to innovate


3. Quantitative Approaches

  • The quantitative approach is often referred to as management science.

  • The management-science school provides managers with a scientific basis for solving problems and making decisions.

  • Ituses a wide array of mathematical and statistical techniques

  • To many people, the use of computers in management is synonymous with management science

    • The development of high-speed computers and of communications among computers provided the means for tackling complex and large-scale organizational problems


4. The Systems Perspective

  • The systems perspective is based on the concept that an organization is a system or an entity of interrelated parts

  • It is a way of viewing aspects of an organization as an interrelated system

  • Rather than viewing one part of an organization as separate from the other parts, a systems approach encourages managers to complicate their thinking by looking for connections between the different parts of the organization.

  • Another aspect is to regard the organization as an open system, one that interacts with the environment

  • Therefore, it is well informed about changes within its surroundings and its position relative to these changes


The Systems Perspective...

  • An organization as a system is composed of four elements: inputs, transformation processes, outputs and feedback

  • The organization transforms inputs into outputs and supplies them to the outside world.

  • If these outputs are perceived as valuable, the organization will survive and prosper

  • The feedback loop indicates that the acceptance of outputs by society gives the organization new inputs for revitalization and expansion.

  • Managers can benefit from this by contributing something of value to external customers and clients


A Systems View of Organization


The Systems Perspective...

  • Two other influential concepts from the systems perspective are entropy and synergy.

  • Entropy is the tendency of a system to run down and die if it does not receive fresh inputs from its environment

  • Synergy means that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts

    • When the various parts of an organization work together, they can produce much more than they could by working independently


5. Contingency School of Management

  • The appropriate management actions and approaches depend on the situation.

  • emphasizes that there is no single best way to manage people or work in every situation.

  • It encourages managers to study individual and situational differences before deciding on a course of action.

  • managers need to spend more time analyzing problems, situations, and employees before taking action to fix them

  • Contingency thinking avoids the classical “one best way” arguments and recognizes the need to understand situational differences and respond appropriately to them.

  • It does not apply certain management principles to any situation


Management in the Future

  • The best practices of management include the major developments in management thought

  • Successful managers recognize that although each theoretical school has limitations in its applications, each approach also offers valuable insights that can broaden a manager’s options in solving problems and achieving organizational goals

  • Modern management approaches recognize that people are complex and variable

  • Employee needs change over time; people possess a range of talents and capabilities that can be developed

  • Organizations and managers, therefore, should respond to individuals with a wide variety of managerial strategies and job opportunities


Basic concepts of leadership, management and governance


What is Management?

  • Although management is so old and universal, it has no agreed definition; definitions are several

  • Management is the process of accomplishing predetermined objectives through the effective use of human, financial, and technical resources

  • It is the art of getting things done through people

  • Efficient utilization of resources for effective achievement of organizational objectives

  • Managing means planning and using resources efficiently to produce intended results (MSH)


Levels of Managers

  • Managers are people formally appointed to positions of authority in organizations or systems who are responsible for the work performance of group members

  • Managers are categorized into three levels.

  • Top level (senior managers)

    • mangers responsible for the overall management of the organization.

    • establish operating policies and guide the organization’s interaction with its environment

    • Establishes long term goals and oversees the work of middle level management


Levels of Managers...

  • Middle level managers

    • Managers located between top-level and frontline managers in the organizational hierarchy.

    • They are responsible for other managers and sometimes for some operating employees.

    • report to more senior managers.

    • responsible for translating strategic goals and plans into more specific objectives and activities


Levels of Managers...

  • First-line (front line) mangers

    • Supervise the operational activities of the organization

    • have authority and responsibility for overseeing a specific type of work and a particular group of workers (non-management people often called operating employees)

    • plan for a short term, involving scheduling employees and establishing detailed procedures to perform worker tasks.


Levels of Managers...

  • Regardless of title or level, managers have several common attributes:

    • They are formally appointed to positions of authority

    • They are charged with directing and enabling others to do their work effectively.

    • They are responsible for utilizing resources.

    • They are accountable to superior for results.

  • The primary differences between levels of managers are the degree of authority, the scope of responsibility and accountability at each level.


Management Functions

  • To accomplish goals, the manager performs four managerial functions in the context of the management process

  • Planning

    • If you have no particular destination in mind, then you can take any road

    • involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities


Management Functions...

  • Organizing

    • the process of making sure the necessary human and physical resources are available to carry out a plan and achieve organizational goals

    • involves assigning activities, dividing work into specific jobs and tasks, and specifying who has the authority to accomplish certain tasks

    • involve grouping of activities into departments or some other logical subdivision


Management Functions...

  • Leading

    • influencing others to achieve organizational objectives

    • it involves energizing, directing, persuading others, and creating a vision

    • Involves interpersonal processes: motivating, communicating, coaching, and showing group members how they can reach their goals.

    • The leadership aspect of management focuses on inspiring people and bringing about change, whereas the other three functions focus more on maintaining a stable system


Management Functions...

  • Controlling

    • Controlling generally involves comparing actual performance to a predetermined standard

    • any significant difference between actual and desired performance would prompt a manager to take corrective action

    • determining whether the original plan needs revision, given the realities of the day

    • it causes a manager to return to the planning function temporarily to fine-tune the original plan


Management roles

  • Henry Mintzberg says that what managers do can best be described by looking at the roles they play at work

  • From his study of actual managers at work, he concluded that managers perform 10 different but highly interrelated roles.

  • The term management role refers to specific categories of managerial behavior

  • Mintzberggrouped the 10 managerial roles in to 3 categories.


Management roles...

  • Interpersonal roles:

  • Are based on the use of formal authority and involve interpersonal relationships

    • Figurehead: Symbolic head; obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature like greeting visitors; signing legal documents, addressing the media

    • Leader: managers motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives

    • Liaison: Maintains self-developed network of contacts with people outside the organization, such as key partners with whom good working relationships are required


Management roles ...

  • Informational roles

  • Informational roles flow from the interpersonal roles and are associated with fulfilling these roles

  • many contacts made while performing figurehead and liaison roles give managers access to a great deal of important information

    • Monitor: involving seeking,receiving, and screening information. Managers need to scan their environments for information that may affect their organization and evaluate the information

    • Disseminator: Transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organization

    • Spokesperson: transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions, results etc


Management roles...

  • Decisional roles

  • The informational roles lead naturally to a range of decisional roles: Managers use information to make decisions

    • Entrepreneur - Change agent: involve designing and initiating changes within the organization; sharing and initiating new ideas or methods

    • Disturbance handler: Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances

    • Resource allocator: Responsible for the allocation of organizational resources of all kinds—making or approving all significant organizational decisions

    • Negotiator: Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations (with suppliers, clients, governments)


Managerial Skills

  • To be effective, managers must possess three key managerial skills

    1. Technical skills

  • involves an understanding of and proficiency in a specific activity that involves methods, processes, procedures, or techniques

  • It is the managers understanding of the nature of job that people under him/her have to perform.

  • Such skills can be acquired through training, education and work experience.

  • Technical skills are frequently referred to as hard skills


2. Interpersonal skill (human relations)

  • a manager’s ability to work effectively as a team member and to build cooperative effort in the unit.

  • communication skills are an important component of interpersonal skills

  • interpersonal skills are often referred to as soft skills

  • many managers at all levels ultimately fail because their interpersonal skills do not match the demands of the job.

  • an important subset of interpersonal skills for managers is multiculturalism, the ability to work effectively with people from different cultures


3. Conceptual skill

  • is the ability to see the organization as a total entity

  • it includes recognizing how the various units of the organization depend on one another and how changes in any one part affect all the others

  • a manager deals with the relationship of the organization to its environment: the community; political, social, and economic forces of the nation as a whole

  • for top-level management, conceptual skill is a priority because executive managers have the most contact with the outside world


Managerial Skills...

  • All levels of managers use the three types of skills in performing management work but in different degree

  • the senior manager is vitally concerned with visualizing the complex relationships in the organization - conceptual skills

  • the low level manager, may be constantly required to make decisions on the basis of technical knowledge of procedures

  • the human skill is critical and equally important for all levels of managers


Management skills by levels of management (Katz 1955)

Top

Middle

Front

line

Conceptual

Human relation

Technical


Managing and leading: what’s the difference?

  • leadership can be defined as the process in which one engages others to set and achieve a common goal, often an organizationally defined goal (Robbins and Judge, 2010).

  • management can be defined as the process of accomplishing predetermined objectives through the effective use of human, financial, and technical resources (Longest Jr., Rakich, and Darr, 2000)

  • leadership is concerned with setting a direction for change, developing a vision for the future, while management consists of implementing those goals through planning, budgeting, staffing …(Kotter 1990)


Managing vs. Leading...

  • “Leaders set the strategic vision and mobilize the efforts towards its realization while good managers ensure effective organization and utilization of resources to achieve results and meet the aims.” (WHO, 2007)

  • leading and managing contribute different things.

  • When you manage well; you ensure that processes and procedures, staff, and other resources are used in an efficient and effective manner


Managing vs. Leading...

  • When you lead well, you enable others to face challenges to creating the future that you all envision

  • You help them to overcome obstacles that stand in the way of desired results and encourage them to adapt to changing conditions

  • Management skills – the skills required to manage resources in order to deliver a task, product or services

  • Leadership skills – the skills required to engage with, motivate and persuade people to buy-in to a vision, objective or goal

  • We manage tasks and resources, we lead people


Managing vs. Leading...

  • Managing is focused on making sure present operations are going well

  • Leading is about the future

  • It is involved in the creation of work that generates new energy or reactivates untapped skills that have lain dormant

  • We define “managing” as planning and using resources efficiently to produce intended results, We define “leading” as mobilizing others to envision and realize a better future


Managing vs. Leading...

  • A Manager is a formally appointed and authorized individual in an organization or system to direct and support others to do their work effectively, oversee resource utilization and accountable for work results

  • A Leader is an individual in a team capable of influencing (successfully persuade others to follow their advice, suggestion or order) group activities towards goal formulation and achievement


Managing vs. Leading...

  • Leading and managing are complementary to reach for and achieve results

  • We did not separate leaders from managers

  • This approach is based on the belief that improvements in health care are made by managers who lead and managewell

  • Leadership practices improved through a process of facing challenges and receiving feedback and support

  • By using this process, managers develop the leadership abilities of their staff


Developing managers who lead

  • The natural process of leadership development, involves facing challenges while receiving feedback and support

Leadership Development Triangle


Developing managers who lead…

  • What happens if a person faces a challenge without receiving appropriate feedback and support from others? – could be overwhelmed

  • What is the result of giving people a challenge with too much feedback? – might use the feedback and not their own ideas and initiative, we frustrate them

  • What is the result of giving them too much support? – might not feel the need to stretch themselves, making them dependent

  • When challenge, feedback, and support are in balance, they ensure a positive leadership development process


Leading, managing and governing practices

  • Leading, managing and governing are complementary to reach for and achieve results.

  • This approach is based on the belief that improvements in health care are made by managers who lead, manage and govern well

  • Managers who lead, manage and govern should apply the 12 Leading, managing and governing practices

  • Applying these practices consistently leads to strong organizational capacity, better health services and ultimately, lasting improvements in people’s health


Leading, managing and governing practices

  • Leading practices

    • Scanning

    • Focusing

    • Aligning and Mobilizing

    • Inspiring

  • Managing practices

    • Planning

    • Organizing

    • Implementing

    • Monitoring and Evaluation

  • Governing practices

    • Cultivate accountability

    • Engage with stakeholders

    • Set shared direction

    • Steward resources


  • Scanning

    • Scanning involves getting information so you can act on it

    • A critical skill for scanning is listening to others

    • looking for feedback from clients, colleagues, supervisors, communities - adjustments to strategies & plans

    • identify client and stakeholder needs and priorities

    • recognize trends, opportunities, and risks that affect the organization

    • look for best practices

    • identify staff capacities and constraints

    • know yourself, your staff, and your organization – values, strengths, and weaknesses

    • Organizational outcome

      • Managers have up-to-date, valid knowledge of their clients, the organization, and its context; they know how their behavior affects others


    Focusing

    • managers who lead focus their limited time, energy, and resources on priority actions

    • use what you have learned from scanning for focusing

    • resources are nearly always insufficient or scarce

    • managing your time is focusing, because time is a scarce resource.

    • develop the crucial ability to

      • identify critical challenges

      • determine key priorities for action

      • create a common picture of desired results

    • Organizational outcome

      • Organization’s work is directed by well-defined mission, strategy, and priorities


    Aligning and mobilizing

    • ensure congruence of values, mission, strategy, structure, systems, and daily actions

    • facilitate teamwork

    • unite key stakeholders around an inspiring vision

    • link goals with rewards and recognition

    • enlist stakeholders to commit resources

    • the essential skill needed for this practice is being able to connect and work with others toward a common vision, crossing boundaries of gender, professional status, language, cultural background, or politics

    • Organizational outcome

      • internal and external stakeholders understand and support the organization’ goals and have mobilized resources to reach these goals


    Inspiring

    • match deeds to words

    • demonstrate honesty in interactions

    • show trust and confidence in staff, acknowledge the contributions of others

    • provide staff with challenges, feedback, and support

    • be a model of creativity, innovation, and learning

    • encourage people to be the best they can be

    • Organizational outcome

      • Organization displays a climate of continuous learning and staff show commitment, even when setbacks occur

    Be a role model

    Actions DO speak louder than words


    Planning

    • Involves the logical sequencing of activities and resources needed to achieve stated objectives.

    • Without plans, your work environment will be chaotic and performance will be haphazard.

    • Set short and long-term organizational goals and performance objectives

    • Develop multiyear and annual plans

    • allocate adequate resources (money, people, and materials)

    • anticipate and reduce risks

    • Organizational outcome

      • Organization has defined results, assigned resources, and an operational plan


    Organizing

    • ensures that resources are available at the right time, in the right place, and in the right quantities to get the work done

    • making sure that you have in place the systems, procedures, and processes that make it possible to execute assigned tasks for staff.

    • ensure a structure that provides accountability and delineates authority

    • strengthen work processes to implement the plan

    • align staff capacities with planned activities

    • Organizational outcome

      • Organization has functional structures, systems, and processes for efficient operations; staff are organized and aware of job responsibilities and expectations


    Implementing

    • integrate systems and coordinate work flow

    • balance competing demands

    • routinely use data for decision-making

    • coordinate activities with other programs and sectors

    • adjust plans and resources as circumstances change

    • Organizational outcome

      • Activities are carried out efficiently, effectively, and responsively


    Monitoring and Evaluating

    • monitor and reflect on progress against plans

    • provide feedback

    • identify needed changes

    • improve work processes, procedures, and tools

    • Organizational outcome

      • Organization continuously updates information about the status of achievements and results, and applies ongoing learning and knowledge


    Cultivate accountability

    • Sustain a culture of integrity and openness that serves the public interest

    • Establish, practice and enforce codes of conduct upholding ethical and moral integrity

    • Embed accountability into the institution

    • Make all reports on finances, activities, plans, and outcomes available to the public and the stakeholders

    • Establish a formal consultation mechanism through which people may voice concerns and provide feedback.

    • Organizational outcome

      • Those who govern are accountable to those who are governed

      • The decision making is open and transparent

      • The decisions serve public interest


    Engage with stakeholders

    • Identify and invite participation from all parties affected by the governing process

    • Empower marginalized voices, including women, by giving them a voice in formal decision-making structures and processes

    • Create and maintain a safe space for the sharing of ideas

    • Provide an independent conflict resolution mechanism

    • Elicit and respond to all forms of feedback in a timely manner

    • Establish alliances for joint action at whole-of-government and whole-of-society levels.

    • Organizational outcome

      • the institution has an inclusive and collaborative process for making decisions to achieve the shared goals


    Set shared direction

    • Prepare, document and implement a shared action plan to achieve the mission and vision of the organization

    • Set up accountability mechanisms for achieving the mission and vision using measurable indicators

    • Advocate on behalf of stakeholders’ needs and concerns

    • Oversee the realization of the shared goals and the desired outcomes

    • Organizational outcome

      • the institution has a shared action plan capable of achieving objectives and outcomes jointly defined by those who govern and those who are governed.


    Steward resources

    • Ethically and efficiently raise and deploy the resources to accomplish the mission and the vision and to serve stakeholders and beneficiaries

    • Collect, analyze and use information and evidence for making decisions

    • Align resources in the health system and its design with the shared goals

    • Build capacity to use resources in a way that maximizes the health and well-being of the public

    • Organizational outcome

      • The institution has adequate resources for achieving the shared goals and, the resources are raised and used ethically and efficiently to achieve the desired objectives and outcomes


    Integrating the practices of leading and managing

    • Leading and managing do not form distinct, sequential processes that you complete separately

    • The leading practices are not independent of the managing practices

    • Both aim at achieving good results and responding effectively to challenges

    • Facing challenges requires you to scan, focus, and plan

    • After scanning your environment to identify your challenges, you focus on a few priority challenges and make a plan to address them


    Integrating the practices of leading and managing...

    • Once you have a plan that addresses your challenges, you need to align and mobilize your stakeholders, staff, and resources, organize your team and the work, and implement the plan to produce results

    • Throughout this process, you inspire your group by enabling your staff to act on their commitment, creativity, and learning

    • The energy to do the work is partially fuelled by inspiring people

    • Lessons learned about effectiveness and performance are cycled back into new plans through monitoring and evaluation


    Integrated leading and managing process


    Linkage between leadership, management, and governance

    • Leadership, management, and governance are interdependent, overlapping, and mutually reinforcing

    • All three work together to achieve a desired result:

      • effective leadership is a prerequisite for good governance

      • effective management is a critical support for good governance,

      • good governance provide purpose, resources, and accountability in support of both leadership and management


    Figure: Leading, Managing, and Governing for Results Model

    • The three circles represent the core components of strong and well-functioning organizations


    Leader Shift - Looking at your mindset and values

    • “If you look to lead, invest at least 40 percent of your time managing your ethics, character, principles, purpose, motivation, and conduct.”

      —Dee Hock

    • Our behaviors are anchored in how we think

    • Therefore, attitudes are important, too

    • Leader shift is the attitudinal and behavioral shifts that leaders can make to improve their effectiveness as leaders


    Shift your mindset

    • To become a manager who leads, you need to gradually shift your mindset

    • To shift your mindset, it is critical to know your values, because they will influence the kind of future you can create and will guide and sustain you on your journey

    • A mindset is a habitual way of interpreting and responding to situations

      • Examine your beliefs and assumptions


    Shift perspective


    Leader shift…

    • From heroic leadership to collaborative action

    • work based on the heroic actions that you take alone, to collaborative actions that build on the strength of groups

    • the challenges you face cannot be addressed if you think that you must – and are the only one who can – solve all problems

    • developing and acknowledging everyone on the team is critical

    • to move toward collaborative action, ensure that everyone is clear about and has agreed to their roles and responsibilities, and then accountable for fulfilling them

    • check that you are delegating tasks that you do not need to execute yourself and that others can do - let people learn from their mistakes?

    • practice speaking less, listening more, and leaving more room for others


    Leader shift…

    2. From despair and pessimism to optimism & hope

    • a state of despair or cynicism, where you see insurmountable problems and obstacles, to a place of hope and dreams, where you see possibilities to make things better;

    • It is hard to attract followers if you preach a message of despair and powerlessness

    • Yet most planning methodologies start by listing all the problems, which can quickly overwhelm a group and feed a feeling of helplessness

    • This leader shift requires that you develop the leadership practice of inspiring your staff and breathing life into their work


    Leader shift…

    3. From blaming others to taking on challenges

    • Reframing an issue from being a problem that is caused by – and must be solved by – others to being a challenge that you will take on

    • stop feeling like a helpless victim and become an agent of change

    • Consider how you might be contributing to problems

    • Use proactive language rather than reactive language

      • Instead of saying, “There is nothing I can do!” say, “Let’s see what we can do about that.”


    Leader shift…

    4. From disconnected activities and busyness to concerted and purposeful action

    • unrelated activities carried out for their own sake, to purposeful work directed toward achieving results that matter;

    • Bring your team members together and use their diverse skills and perspectives to solve problems as they occur

    • people who are preoccupied with their specific area of responsibility often lack the time to share ideas with people working in other relevant areas and miss opportunities to work together and contribute to each other’s objectives


    Leader shift…

    5. From a preoccupation with oneself to generosity and a concern for the common good

    • Preoccupation with yourself and ways to satisfy your needs, to a place where you can generously and compassionately serve a greater good and inspire others to do the same

    • As long as you remain focused on yourself, your self-absorption will interferewith your ability to provide the stewardship that the health system needs from you and can no longer be effective

    • check whether your attitudes and actions are helping the people you are serving or distracting you from helping them

    • use ethical decision-making models, like “Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.”


    Thank you!!


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