Structure and molecular properties
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Structure and Molecular Properties. Summer 2012. Overview. Syllabus ChemDraw Structures and intermolecular forces. Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties. Virtual ChemBook , Elmhurst College. Solvents and Boiling Points. Boiling Point Trend: Mass. Intermolecular Forces.

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Structure and Molecular Properties

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Structureand Molecular Properties

Summer 2012


Overview

  • Syllabus

  • ChemDraw

  • Structures and intermolecular forces


Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties

  • Virtual ChemBook, Elmhurst College


Solvents and Boiling Points


Boiling Point Trend: Mass


Intermolecular Forces

  • Hydrogen bonding

    • Acceptor/donor

  • Dipole/dipole

  • Dipole/induced dipole

  • Induced dipole/induced dipole

    • Also called London dispersion forces

VDWs Forces


H-Bond Donor, Acceptor, Neither, or Both


Polar Protic, Polar Aprotic, Nonpolar


London Forces in Nonpolar Solvents


General Principles

  • If molecules are about the same mass

    • H-bonding > Dipole-dipole > Induced dipole

  • Induced dipole is weakest interaction, but as surface area increases, cumulative effect can overcome stronger IMF

  • Strategy for predicting relative boiling points


Solubility

  • “Like dissolves like”

  • Based on IMF


Miscibility and Density

  • Miscibility spectrum

  • Density

    • Organics (0.7 g/mL)

    • Aqueous (1.0 g/mL)

    • Halogenated (1.3 g.mL)


Miscibility with Water


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