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Response to Intervention (RTI): Considerations for Identification and Instructional Reform . Joseph F. Kovaleski Indiana University of PA David Prasse Loyola University Chicago. Current system – process above results Current system – wait to fail model Dual system- general and special
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Joseph F. Kovaleski
Indiana University of PA
Loyola University Chicago
“The committee believes that the IQ-achievement discrepancy formula, which considers whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability, should not be a requirement for determining eligibility under the IDEA. There is no evidence that the IQ-achievement discrepancy formula can be applied in a consistent and educationally meaningful (i.e., reliable and valid) manner.”
“The LEA shall not be required to take into consideration whether the child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.”
“In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based intervention.”
“The bill allows local educational agencies to make an eligibility determination through … a process based upon a child\'s response to scientific, research-based intervention. The (President’s) Commission recommended that the identification process … be simplified and that assessments that reflect learning and behavior in the classroom be encouraged, with less reliance on the assessments of IQ and achievement ….”
A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if determinant factor is:
“… a child cannot be determined to be a child with a disability solely because the child did not receive scientifically based instruction in reading. With the combination of programs authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (NCLB), particularly Reading First and Early Reading First, and the prereferral services concept … the Committee hopes that local educational agencies will improve their reading and literacy instruction to enable all children to read at grade level by the third grade.”
Assessment and Progress Data
From Problem Solving Process
Convergence of Data from a
Variety of Sources
(Grimes & Tilly, 2003)
Assessment of performance compared to national/state/local benchmarks:
*Note that Shinn’s 2.0X format is not a calculation of grade levels.
Grade level teaming based on data
The practice of school psychology should be guided by its effects on student outcomes;
not by …