Plant ecology chapter 17
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Plant Ecology - Chapter 17. Climate & Physiognomy. The Abiotic Components of Ecosystems. 1) Outside energy source 2) Physical factors that determine weather, climate 3) Chemicals essential for life. Outside Energy Source. Powers photosynthesis. Warms earth. Powers water cycle.

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Plant Ecology - Chapter 17

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Plant ecology chapter 17

Plant Ecology - Chapter 17

Climate & Physiognomy


The abiotic components of ecosystems

The Abiotic Components of Ecosystems

1) Outside energy source

2) Physical factors that determine

weather, climate

3) Chemicals essential for life


Outside energy source

Outside Energy Source

Powers

photosynthesis

Warms earth

Powers water

cycle


Physical factors that determine weather climate

Physical factors that determineweather, climate

Heat

Wind

Precipitation

Topography


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat

  • Location

  • Reflection

  • Retention


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat

  • Daily temperatures can also vary dramatically in some habitats

  • Deserts - dry air, loses heat rapidly

  • High altitudes - thinner “blanket” of atmosphere


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat

  • Long-term changes in earth’s orbit, position

  • Collectively produce Croll-Milankovic effects on climate

  • Orbit shape change

  • Affects range of seasonal variation


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat

  • Degree of tilt

  • Affects range of seasonal variation


Plant ecology chapter 17

Heat

  • Direction of the tilt - the “wobble”

  • Changes which hemisphere is pointed toward sun when orbit is closest to sun

  • Affects severity of seasonal shift


Wind and precipitation

Wind and Precipitation

  • Uneven heating

  • Ascending, descending air masses - Hadley cell


Modifiers

Modifiers

  • Rotation of the globe - Coriolis effect

  • Hadley, Ferrel cells, jet streams


Modifiers1

Modifiers

  • Ocean currents, gyres induced by surface air mass movements


Modifiers2

Modifiers

  • Topography - mountains

  • Rain shadows


Modifiers3

Modifiers

  • Topography - lakes

  • Lake effect precipitation


Modifiers4

Modifiers

Annual precipitation


Modifiers5

Modifiers


Seasonal patterns

Seasonal Patterns


Multi year patterns

Multi-year Patterns

3-7-year El Nino

Southern Oscillation


Multi year patterns1

Multi-year Patterns

  • Combined ocean currents and jet stream


Multi year patterns2

Multi-year Patterns

El Nino

  • Milder winters along US-Canada border

  • Increased winter storms in California

  • Floods in SE, snow in SW mountains

  • Decreased hurricane activity in Atlantic


Multi year patterns3

Multi-year Patterns

La Nina

  • More, stronger tornadoes in Midwest

  • More, stronger hurricanes

  • Drought, forest fires in SW


Plant physiognomy

Plant Physiognomy

  • North-south gradient in vegetation form due to temperature

  • West-east changes in response to precipitation


Plant physiognomy1

Plant Physiognomy

  • Evergreen broadleaf

  • Deciduous broadleaf

  • Evergreen coniferous

  • Tree line


Plant physiognomy2

Plant Physiognomy

  • Tree line climate can produce strange tree forms - krummholz

  • Atypical growth pattern resulting from borderline growth conditions - mean annual soil temps. <5-8°C, air temps. ~10°C


Plant physiognomy3

Plant Physiognomy

  • Gradual transition from west to east, grassland to woodland to forest

  • Changes in amount, seasonality of rainfall


Plant physiognomy4

Plant Physiognomy

  • East of Rockies, start with short-grass prairie

  • Low-growing clumps of grass with bare patches between clumps


Plant physiognomy5

Plant Physiognomy

  • Gradual shift from midgrass prairie to tallgrass prairie in Nebraska/Iowa

  • Taller grasses, forbs, more diversity and biomass

  • Follows pattern of increasing rainfall


Plant physiognomy6

Plant Physiognomy

  • Further east - trees appear in places other than along streams

  • Woodlands - dominated by trees, but without a closed canopy (oak savanna)


Plant physiognomy7

Plant Physiognomy

  • Forests appear near Illinois-Indiana border

  • Continue to the east coast


Plant physiognomy8

Plant Physiognomy

  • Seasonality of precipitation (spring and fall) and warmer temperatures increase chance of drought in grasslands


Plant physiognomy9

Plant Physiognomy

  • Mid-, tall-grass prairies experience fire every 3-5 years (too little combustible material in short-grass prairie)

  • Trees can’t survive frequent fires (apical meristems)


Plant physiognomy10

Plant Physiognomy

  • Woodlands appear where fire frequency is low enough to allow trees to grow tall enough to avoid fire

  • Still are more fire-tolerant species


Plant physiognomy11

Plant Physiognomy

  • Precipitation in forests is high enough to keep fire frequency low


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